Chap17 Equilibrium (1)

Chap17 Equilibrium (1) - Chapter 17 Equilibrium: The Extent...

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Chapter 17 Equilibrium: The Extent of Chemical Reactions 17-1
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Equilibrium: The Extent of Chemical Reactions 17.1 The Equilibrium State and the Equilibrium Constant 17.2 The Reaction Quotient and the Equilibrium Constant 17.3 Expressing Equilibria with Pressure Terms: Relation between K c and K p 7 4 Comparing nd Determine Reaction Direction 17.4 Comparing Q and K to Determine Reaction Direction 17.5 How to Solve Equilibrium Problems 17.6 Reaction Conditions and Equilibrium: Le Châtelier’s Principle 17-2
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he Equilibrium State The Equilibrium State All reactions are reversible and under suitable conditions will reach a state of equilibrium . At equilibrium, the concentrations of products and reactants q, p no longer change because the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal. At equilibrium: rate forward = rate reverse hemical equilibrium is a ynamic tate because reactions Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic state because reactions continue to occur, but because they occur at the same rate, no net change is observed on the macroscopic level. 17-3
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Reaching equilibrium on the macroscopic and olecular levels molecular levels. 17-4
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he Equilibrium Constant The Equilibrium Constant Consider the reaction N 2 O 4 ( g ) 2NO 2 ( g ) At equilibrium rate fwd = rate rev o O 2 so k [N 2 O 4 ] eq = k [NO 2 ] eq k fwd k v [NO 2 ] [N O ] q 2 eq = then rev [ 2 4 ] eq The ratio of constants gives a new constant, the equilibrium onstant: constant: k fwd [NO 2 ] 2 eq = K = 17-5 k rev [N 2 O 4 ] eq
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nd the extent of reaction K and the extent of reaction K reflects a particular ratio of product concentrations to actant concentrations for a reaction reactant concentrations for a reaction. K therefore indicates the extent of a reaction, i.e., how r a reaction proceeds towards the products at a mall alue for dicates that the reaction yields little far a reaction proceeds towards the products at a given temperature. A small value for K indicates that the reaction yields little product before reaching equilibrium. The reaction favors the reactants . large value for K indicates that the reaction reaches equilibrium with very little reactant remaining. The 17-6 reaction favors the products .
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The range of equilibrium constants. small K The reaction mixture contains mostly actants reactants. large K The reaction mixture contains mostly 17-7 y products. intermediate K
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The Reaction Quotient Q For the general reaction ] ] the reaction quotient Q = [C] c [D] d [A] a [B] b Q gives the ratio of product concentrations to reactant gp concentrations at any point in a reaction. t equilibrium: = At equilibrium: Q K For a particular system and temperature, the same quilibrium state is attained regardless of starting equilibrium state is attained regardless of starting concentrations . The value of Q indicates how close the reaction is to equilibrium, and in which direction it must 17-8 proceed to reach equilibrium.
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The change in Q during the N 2 O 4 -NO 2 reaction.
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This note was uploaded on 12/15/2011 for the course CHM 139 taught by Professor Browning during the Spring '08 term at University of Toronto.

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Chap17 Equilibrium (1) - Chapter 17 Equilibrium: The Extent...

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