Chap18 Acid-Base (3)

Chap18 Acid-Base (3) - Chapter 18 Acid-Base Equilibria 18-1...

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Chapter 18 Acid-Base Equilibria 18-1
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Acid-Base Equilibria 18.1 Acids and Bases in Water 18.2 Autoionization of Water and the pH Scale 18.3 Proton Transfer and the Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition 8 4 Solving Problems Involving Weak cid Equilibria 18.4 Solving Problems Involving Weak-Acid Equilibria 18.5 Weak Bases and Their Relation to Weak Acids 18.6 Molecular Properties and Acid Strength 18.7 Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions 18.8 Generalizing the Brønsted-Lowry Concept: The Leveling Effect 18.9 Electron-Pair Donation and the Lewis Acid-Base Definition 18-2
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Acid Strength of Nonmetal Hydrides For nonmetal hydrides (E-H), acid strength depends on: • the electronegativity of the central nonmetal (E), and • the strength of the E-H bond. Across a period, acid strength increases . Electronegativity increases across a period, so the acidity of E-H gy p , y increases. Down a group, acid strength increases . The length of the E-H bond increases down a group and its bond strength therefore decreases. 18-3
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Figure 18.10 The effect of atomic and molecular properties on onmetal hydride acidity. A(16) A(17) nonmetal hydride acidity. 6A(16) H 2 O 7A(17) HF Electronegativity increases, so acidity increases ty H 2 S HCl gth so acidi H 2 Se HBr nd stren g creases, reases H 2 Te H I Bo n de c inc r 18-4
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Acid Strength of Oxoacids All oxoacids have the acidic H bonded to an O atom . Acid strength of oxoacids depends on: • the electronegativity of the central nonmetal (E), and • the number of O atoms around E. or oxoacids with the ame umber of O atoms acid For oxoacids with the same number of O atoms, acid strength increases as the electronegativity of E increases. For oxoacids with different numbers of O atoms, acid strength increases with the number of O atoms. 18-5
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Figure 18.11 The relative strengths of oxoacids. gu e 8 A Electronegativity increases, so acidity increases. B umber of O atoms increases so acidity increases 18-6 Number of O atoms increases, so acidity increases.
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Hydrated Metal Ions Some hydrated metal ions are able to transfer an H + to H 2 O. These metal ions will form acidic solutions. Consider a metal ion in solution, M n + : M n + ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) M(H 2 O) x n + ( aq ) M mall nd ighl charged it ill ithdra eno gh If M n + is small and highly charged , it will withdraw enough e - density from the O-H bonds of the bound H 2 O molecules to release H + : M(H 2 O) x n + ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) M(H 2 O) x -1 OH ( n -1) ( aq ) + H 3 O + ( aq ) 18-7
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Figure 18.12 The acidic behavior of the hydrated Al 3+ ion. 18-8
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Salts that Yield Neutral Solutions A salt that consists of the anion of a strong acid and the cation of a strong base yields a neutral solution.
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Chap18 Acid-Base (3) - Chapter 18 Acid-Base Equilibria 18-1...

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