Though we now think of Franklin as an inventor, scientist, man of letters, and American patriot, we sometimes forget how deeply he was involved in the politics of his own colony. William Penn, a devout Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1681 as an experiment in religious freedom and representative government. Penn signed a peace treaty with the Indians and founded a City of Brotherly Love. The colony had long welcomed pacifist Quakers (mostly English and Welsh) and German farmers. Around the time of Franklin's youth, large numbers of Scots and Irish moved into the colony, settling the frontier. Meanwhile, the descendants of William Penn maintained power. These groups all had different interests, different values, and in some cases different languages. Keeping the place together was a challenge. Franklin rise to power in Pennsylvania was quiet but complete. By the 1750s, he was
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