Fluvial Landforms and Processe4

Fluvial Landforms and Processe4 - overland flow movement of...

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Fluvial Landforms and Processes fluvius (L.): river the work of rivers, but also the erosion of soil and rock on hillslopes by running water, particularly in semiarid environments (badlands ) requires understanding of stream and hillslope hydrology and hydraulics hydrological cycle: orderly scheme to systematically examine and analyze the movement of water through the landscape flowing water is the result of net precipitation = total precipitation (input) - evapotranspiration (output or loss) Erosional processes on slopes 1. raindrop impact o force of raindrops on bare soil causing disaggregation of surface soil 2. rainsplash erosion o displacement of wet soil by raindrops creating small craters in bare soil o on slopes the splash is asymmetrical resulting in the progressive downslope displacement of wet soil during intense rain on bare slopes 3. sheet wash (rain wash) o entrainment of loose particles in overland flow
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Unformatted text preview: overland flow movement of water over slopes when precipitation intensity exceeds the soil infiltration capacity according to soil porosity and permeability, vegetation, slope gradient, antecedent moisture and seasonal factors (e.g. ice) o shallow overland flow (sheet flow) on smooth slopes is laminar (layered), so particles can only be displaced but not suspended o erosion is accentuated by raindrop impact, rainsplash erosion, surging of the overland flow as small vegetation or soil dams break, and by turbulence 4. rill erosion o overland flow deepens downslope, reaching a critical depth where laminar flow cannot be maintain and turbulence begins to develop o turbulent eddies suspend soil particles, creating rills 5. subsurface erosion piping formation of natural pipes as interflow and baseflow erode macropores and fractures in fine sediments sapping collapse of the roof of a pipe to form a gully...
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Fluvial Landforms and Processe4 - overland flow movement of...

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