Geological Basis of Geomorpholog1

Geological Basis of Geomorpholog1 - Geological Basis of...

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Geological Basis of Geomorphology 1. Active role of the geological framework: endogenic processes work performed on the lithosphere by internal heat tectonic (structural) landforms o diastrophism orogenesis: mountain building epeirogenesis: continent building o vulcanism 2. Passive role of the geological framework: resistance to exogenic processes o lithology: physical and chemical properties of rocks and sediment o structure: orientation of rock units and discontinuities determine the morphology of structurally-controlled landforms (erosional landforms in resistant materials) Endogenic Processes source of energy: internal heat (geothermal energy) from decay of radioactive isotopes isotope half-life (yrs) U 238 4.5 x 10 9 U 235 7.1 x 10 8 Th 232 1.4 x 10 10 K 40 1.3 x 10 9 U 238 and Th 232 have the longer half-lives, so they are presently the principal sources of radiogenic heat 2.4 x 10 20 cal/yr transmitted to the earth's surface (solar constant: 1.97 cal/sq. cm/min)
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Geological Basis of Geomorpholog1 - Geological Basis of...

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