Simms, L. J.
The Big Seven model of personality and its relevance to personality
Journal of Personality, 75,
The Big Seven includes the Big Five but tacks on self-evaluative dimensions – Positive Valence
(exceptional, smart, important) and Negative Valence (evil, immoral, disgusting).
to determine whether this model would facilitate understanding of personality pathology better
than does the Big Five.
Some have alternatively argued that PV and NV reflect response styles,
that they may merely be artifacts of skewed dimensions, that they are only reflections of self-
esteem, or are maladaptive extremes of the Big Five.
Simms was also interested in whether these
evaluative dimensions might be broader or more circumscribed than the Big Five, if they did not
fit at that level of the hierarchy.
Ultimately, do the Big Seven predict personality pathology
better than do the Big Five, with particular emphasis on NPD, BPD, and ASPD.
Using the Inventory of Personal Characteristics (IPC-7), the Big Five Inventory (BFI), the
Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP-2), the Narcissistic Personality
Inventory (NPI), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), with 403 undergraduates, Simms
asserted that PV and NV add to our predictions beyond the Big Five.
PV and NV did
significantly correlate with a number of other traits according to the IPC-7, BFI, and SNAP-2.
However, the hierarchical multiple regressions suggested that the addition of PV and/or NV