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CS101.Lect18.Images.Compression

CS101.Lect18.Images.Compression - CS101 Lecture 18 Image...

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1 1 Aaron Stevens 21 October 2010 Some material form Wikimedia Commons Special thanks to John Magee and his dog CS101 Lecture 18: Image Compression 2 What You’ll Learn Today – Review: how big are image files? – How can we make image files smaller? – What are the main image file formats, and how are they different from each other? – What are the main techniques for compressing images?
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2 3 Image File Size: HUGE! Raster/Bitmap Graphics Storage of data on a pixel-by-pixel basis Bitmap (BMP), GIF, JPEG, and PNG, for example How much data is required to represent a picture? Typical size might be 1024 by 768 pixels (~ 800,000) At 3 bytes per pixel, about 2,400,000 bytes for one picture. A 10Mpixel picture would be 30,000,000 bytes per picture. 4 Consider download times… Example: A 10Mpixel picture would be 30,000,000 bytes This is 240,000,000 bits. Typical home cable modem downloads at 5 Mbits per second (5,000,000 bits per second). How long to download this picture? – 240,000,000 / 5,000,000 = 48 seconds What factors make the image so big?
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3 5 Describe this picture… This image was a homework assignment by a CS108 student, Spring 2008. Vector Graphics describes an image by coordinates, lines, geometric shapes and colors. 6 Vector Graphics Example Instructions written in Python by CS108 student (Spring 2010). File size: 29743 bytes.
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4 7 Vector Graphics Advantages: – Small file sizes (instructions take much less space than sampling pixels) – Easy to resize mathematically without loss of detail Disadvantages: – Image shapes are not lifelike – Color contrast and texturing are rigid, not lifelike – Requires software to interpret the drawing instructions 8 Raster vs. Vector Graphics When would you use each? Drawings, Diagrams, Games, etc. Photography, video, etc.
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5 9 Storing an image in fewer bytes What are our choices? What are reasonable tradeoffs? –Raster Graphics vs. Vector Graphics? –Decrease sampling rate (fewer pixels) –Decrease quantization (fewer colors) –Compression 10 Lower Image Resolution?
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