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4. Climate, GH effectnc - Pre-class BBC show Lecture 4...

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Pre-class BBC show
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Lecture 4: Climate and the Greenhouse Effect Climate Greenhouse Effect http://www.meteorologyclimate.com/ Get off of my cloud!
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Review/clarification Natural selection acts on population traits like a professor does in “curving an exam”: it shifts the mean, eventually to where the populations cannot interbreed (“speciation”)
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Earth’s Radiation Budget (Global Average) 30% reflected
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Heat redistribution by atmosphere Tropical heating drives Hadley cell circulation Warm humid air rises along the equator Transfers water vapor & heat from tropics to higher latitudes
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Movement of Air mass Rises at equator and sinks near poles The high solar radiation at the equator heats the air masses, causing them to rise (buoyant). As the air rises, the temperature of the air mass decreases
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Rising Air As the air rises, the temperature of the air mass decreases (adiabatic lapse rate 5°C/km) Cold air holds less water vapor. Voila, rain and the tropical rain (forest) . Low pressure systems usually have rain because the rising air drop water as the air ascends and cools Low pressure systems spin counterclockwise in
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Coriolis effect Earth’s rotation causes air and water masses to be defected to the right (clockwise) in the northern hemisphere Counterclockwise for southern hemisphere
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Coriolis effect
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Atmospheric Circulation Actual pattern is more complex Three circulation cells Trade winds, westerlies, easterlies Intertropical convergence zone Northern, southern trade winds converge near equator Changes seasonally
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Global wind patterns
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Ocean temperature Earth average 15°C, tropic sea surface 28°C, subtropics 18°C, deep sea 2°C August SST (sea surface temperatures)
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Sea surface temperature during August Surface currents redistribute heat
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