Cognitive Transitions - updated

Cognitive Transitions - updated - 1 CHAPTER 2 ! What are...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 CHAPTER 2 ! What are the major changes in cognition that take place during adolescence? ! What are the major theoretical perspectives on adolescent thinking? ! What changes take place in the adolescent brain? ! Are there individual differences in intelligence in adolescence 2 adolescence? ! How do changes in cognition affect real-world situations that adolescents encounter? 2 ! Five Chief Ways cognitions change in Five Chief Ways cognitions change in adolescence (Keating, 1990): adolescence (Keating, 1990): " Better able to think about what is possible, instead of limiting thought to what is real " Better able to think about abstract things " Begin thinking more often about the process of thinking itself " Thinking becomes multidimensional (rather than being limited to a single issue) " More likely to see things as relative, rather than absolute " Example: Ways in which their lives might be affected by lives might be affected by different career choices " Moves easily between the specific and the abstract to generate alternative possibilities " Development of deductive reasoning 4 ! If-then thinking ! Major intellectual accomplishment 3 ! Ability to comprehend higher-order abstract logic: " Puns, proverbs, metaphors, and analogies ! The growth of social thinking (social cognition) during adolescence is directly related to the young persons improving ability to think abstractly 5 abstractly ! Monitoring ones own cognitive activity during thinking " Increased introspection: thinking about our own emotions " Increased self-consciousness: thinking that others are thinking of us " Increased intellectualization: thinking about our own thoughts 6 4 ! Adolescent Egocentrism " Imaginary audience " Imaginary audience ! Believe that everyone is watching ! Behavior is the focus of others concern " Personal fable ! Experiences are unique ! Nothing bad can happen to them because they are special 7 ! Risk-taking is more common among males than females " This gender gap has been narrowing over time ! Young people behave in risky ways because a 8 variety of emotional and social factors influence their judgment 5 ! Behavioral decision theory " Decision making is rational and individuals try to maximize benefits of alternative courses of action and minimize costs ! Personal fable about invulnerability " Early adolescents less likely 9 than young adults to feel invulnerable " Adolescents vary more than adults in interpreting words describing risk ! Ability to view things from more than one aspect at a time at a time ! More sophisticated understanding of probability ! Understand sarcasm ! Understand double-entendres 10 6...
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Cognitive Transitions - updated - 1 CHAPTER 2 ! What are...

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