intro notes - Adolescence Period of Transitions Biological...

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1 Adolescence Adolescence Period of Transitions : Biological, psychological, social, and economic • Second Decade of Life (13-19) – Makes more sense to think adolescence as beginning around age 10 and ending in the early twenties. – Series of Transitions from immaturity to maturity • May be mature in some areas and not others (e.g., physically mature but not cognitively mature) Divisions within Adolescence Divisions within Adolescence Early Adolescence – covers period from about 10-13 Middle Adolescence – from about 14-18 Late Adolescence (“Youth”) – from about 19-22 Divisions – Correspond to the way many societies group individuals in educational institutions – Differences not just between adolescence and childhood or adulthood; differences among various phases of adolescence itself
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2 Fundamental Changes of Fundamental Changes of Adolescence Adolescence Onset of Puberty (Biological) Puberty – involves changes in the young person’s physical appearance and attainment of reproductive capacity Emergence of more advanced thinking abilities (Cognitive) – Processes underlying how people think about things – Hypothetical reasoning, abstract reasoning Transition into new roles in society (Social) – Some societies Rite of Passages – Other societies transition is less clearly demarcated The Contexts of The Contexts of Adolescence Adolescence Ecological Systems Theory (Bronfenbrenner) developing person is embedded in a Series of environmental systems that interact with one another and with the person to influence development Contexts for Development Microsystem : Activities and interactions that occur in the person's immediate surroundings Mesosystem: The connections or interrelationships among microsystems Exosystem : Contexts that children are not a part of but which may nevertheless influence their development Macrosystem : Broad, overarching ideology that dictates how children should be treated, what they should be taught, and the goals for which they should strive Chronosystem : Temporal dimension—the age of the child
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3 The Contexts of Adolescence The Contexts of Adolescence Families – Divorce, single-parent homes, working mothers, frequent moves Peer Groups – Past 100 years – age-segregated peer groups emerged – Important role in socialization – Judith Rich Harris – “Most” important socializing agent Schools – Since 1930s Americans turn to schools to occupy, socialize, and educate adolescents
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