Chapter4ISM

Chapter4ISM - CHAPTER 4 REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS...

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CHAPTER 4 REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Problem Categories Biological : 4.95, 4.98, 4.111, 4.135, 4.144. Conceptual : 4.7, 4.8, 4.11, 4.13, 4.17, 4.18, 4.101, 4.113, 4.115, 4.119, 4.147, 4.148. Descriptive : 4.9, 4.10, 4.12, 4.14, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.33, 4.34, 4.43, 4.44, 4.51, 4.52, 4.53, 4.54, 4.55, 4.56, 4.99, 4.100, 4.111, 4.116, 4.117, 4.118, 4.119, 4.120, 4.121, 4.122, 4.123, 4.124, 4.125, 4.126, 4.127, 4.128, 4.129, 4.131, 4.132, 4.137, 4.139, 4.141, 4.142, 4.143, 4.145, 4.146, 4.149, 4.151, 4.153, 4.154, 4.156. Environmental : 4.80, 4.92, 4.121. Industrial : 4.137, 4.139, 4.140, 4.154. Organic : 4.96, 4.106, 4.135, 4.144. Difficulty Level Easy : 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.48, 4.61, 4.70, 4.71, 4.72, 4.132, 4.141, 4.143, 4.147. Medium : 4.13, 4.14, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.31, 4.32, 4.33, 4.34, 4.43, 4.44, 4.45, 4.46, 4.47, 4.49, 4.50, 4.51, 4.52, 4.53, 4.54, 4.55, 4.56, 4.59, 4.60, 4.62, 4.63, 4.64, 4.65, 4.66, 4.69, 4.80, 4.85, 4.86, 4.87, 4.88, 4.91, 4.92, 4.93, 4.94, 4.95, 4.96, 4.99, 4.100, 4.101, 4.103, 4.104, 4.105, 4.106, 4.107, 4.113, 4.114, 4.115, 4.116, 4.117, 4.118, 4.120, 4.121, 4.122, 4.123, 4.124, 4.125, 4.127, 4.129, 4.130, 4.131, 4.133, 4.134, 4.135, 4.137, 4.138, 4.139, 4.140, 4.142, 4.145, 4.146, 4.148, 4.150, 4.153. Difficult : 4.73, 4.74, 4.77, 4.78, 4.79, 4.97, 4.98, 4.102, 4.108, 4.109, 4.110, 4.111, 4.112, 4.119, 4.126, 4.128, 4.136, 4.144, 4.149, 4.151, 4.152, 4.154, 4.155, 4.156, 4.157. 4.7 ( a ) i s a s t r o n g e l e c t r o l y t e . T h e c o m p o u n d d i s s o c i a t e s c o m p l e t e l y i n t o i o n s i n s o l u t i o n . (b) is a nonelectrolyte. The compound dissolves in water, but the molecules remain intact. ( c ) i s a w e a k e l e c t r o l y t e . A s m a l l a m o u n t o f t h e c o m p o u n d d i s s o c i a t e s i n t o i o n s i n w a t e r . 4.8 When NaCl dissolves in water it dissociates into Na ± and Cl ² ions. When the ions are hydrated, the water molecules will be oriented so that the negative end of the water dipole interacts with the positive sodium ion, and the positive end of the water dipole interacts with the negative chloride ion. The negative end of the water dipole is near the oxygen atom, and the positive end of the water dipole is near the hydrogen atoms. The diagram that best represents the hydration of NaCl when dissolved in water is choice (c) . 4.9 I o n i c c o m p o u n d s , s t r o n g a c i d s , a n d s t r o n g b a s e s ( m etal hydroxides) are strong electrolytes (completely broken up into ions of the compound). Weak acids and weak bases are weak electrolytes. Molecular substances other than acids or bases are nonelectrolytes. ( a ) ve ry weak e lec t ro ly te (b) s t r o n g e l e c t r o l y t e ( i o n i c c om p o u n d ) (c) s t rong e t ( s t ac id ) (d) w e a k e l e c t r o l y t e ( w e a k a c i d ) (e) none t (mo lecu la r compound - ne i the r no r ba s e ) 4.10 I o n i c c o m p o u n d s , s t r o n g a c i d s , a n d s t r o n g b a s e s ( m etal hydroxides) are strong electrolytes (completely broken up into ions of the compound). Weak acids and weak bases are weak electrolytes. Molecular substances other than acids or bases are nonelectrolytes. (a) s t e t rolyte (ionic) (b) n o n e l e c t r o l y t e (c) e t (weak se ) (d) s t r o n g e l e c t r o l y t e ( s t r o n g b a s e ) 4.11 S i n c e s o l u t i o n s m u s t b e e l e c t r i c a l l y n e u t r a l , a n y f l o w o f p o s i t i v e s p e c i e s ( c a t i o n s ) m u s t b e b a l a n c e d b y t h e flow of negative species (anions). Therefore, the correct answer is (d) .
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C H A P T E R 4 : R E A C T I O N S I N A Q U E O U S S O L U T I O N S 81 4.12 (a) So l id NaC l does no t conduc t .
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Chapter4ISM - CHAPTER 4 REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS...

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