19. energyoptions - 19. Energy Future Linden Bayway...

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19. Energy Future “..if our black and nervous civilization, based on coal, shall be followed by a quieter civilization based on the utilization of solar energy, that will not be harmful to progress and to human happiness.” Cimician, Science , 1912 Linden Bayway refinery BP Deepwater Horizo n Marcellus Shale gas Oyster Cr. nuke Futuregen CCS AC wind farm Rutgers solar farm Plankton biofuels
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Energy use
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Global energy inventory
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Future Energy and CO 2 Requirements Increased conservation – saving energy & reduce CO 2 footprint Increased renewable energy – solar, wind, and biological energy sources Nuclear energy (several thousand plants) CO 2 removal and sequestration (CCS) from large point source producers (e.g., coal power plants) New technologies – including biological production of energy rich molecules from non-food plants, photocatalyzed H 2 production, and much greater
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Where do oil and gas (methane CH 4 ) come from? Dead plankton must be isolated from scavenging bacteria T+P bind simple hydrocarbons into complex molecules (>C 70 ) = 'kerogen' Kerogen in 'oil window' breaks down to form crude oil Oil and gas
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How and where do oil + gas (CH 4 ) form? note : this temp-depth relationship depends on the local geothermal gradient 4 - 6 km 105° - 160°C Oil and gas
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Peaking and Decline of Individual Fields leads to Regional, Country, then World Peak Source: ASPO Italy Source: Hubbert, 1956 Hubbert’s peak oil U.S . World
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Global oil production is rapidly approaching its peak, even if natural gas liquids plus expensive, risky deepwater and polar oil are included. TODAY HISTORY YOUR LIFETIME Peak Oil - not if …. when
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Marcellus Shale Gas – New Major US Play
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Marcellus Shale Gas – New Major US Play
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Drilling in the Marcellus Shale Plastic-lined excavation used to contain debris from drilling. Has to be cut through land so equipment and workers can get to drilling site. Set up and drilling can take 3 to 4 months. Rig is removed and replaced with equipment to control gas extraction. Well can produce for decades. 3 to 5 acres has to be cleared and prepped for drilling operations. Mud Pond Access Road Drilling Rig Site Prep Gas Pipelines Water Table Needed to move gas off site once well is producing. Steel shaft is encased in concrete to try to prevent contamination of groundwater. Fracking
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fracturing, a technique in which large amounts of water, combined with smaller amounts of chemicals and sand, are pumped under high pressure into a drilled gas well. Used to form tiny fractures in the rock by using water to force the rock to open along tiny existing fractures. Horizontal Drilling and Hydrofracking
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19. energyoptions - 19. Energy Future Linden Bayway...

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