Chapter02-OS7e - Operating Systems: Internals andDesign...

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Chapter 2 Operating System  Overview n Seventh Edition n By William Stallings Operating  Systems: Internals  and Design  Principles
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Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles Operating systems are those programs that interface the machine with the applications programs. The main function of these systems is to dynamically allocate the shared system resources to the executing programs. As such, research in this area is clearly concerned with the management and scheduling of memory, processes, and other devices. But the interface with adjacent levels continues to shift with time. Functions that were originally part of the operating system have migrated to the hardware. On the other side, programmed functions extraneous to the problems being solved by the application programs are included in the operating system. WHAT CAN BE AUTOMATED?: THE COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH STUDY, MIT Press, 1980
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Operating System n A program that controls the execution of application  programs n An interface between applications and hardware
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The OS as a User/Computer  Interface n Computer Hardware-Software Structure n Layered organization n OS services to users
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Computer Hardware and  Software Infrastructure
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Operating System Services n Program development n Program execution n Access I/O devices n Controlled access to files n System access n Error detection and response n Accounting
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Key Interfaces n Instruction set architecture (ISA) n Application binary interface (ABI) n Application programming interface (API)
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n A computer is a set of resources for  n The OS is responsible for managing these  resources n The OS exercises its control  through software The Operating System as a  Resource Manager
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Operating System  as Software n Functions in the same way as ordinary  computer software n Program, or suite of programs, executed by  the processor n Frequently relinquishes control and must  depend on the processor to allow it to regain  control
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Operatin g System as Resource  Manager
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Evolution of Operating  Systems § A major OS will evolve over time for a  number of reasons:
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Evolution of  Operating Systems §  Stages include:
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Serial Processing n Earliest Computers: n No operating system n programmers interacted  directly with the computer  hardware n Computers ran from a console  with display lights, toggle  switches, some form of input  device, and a printer n Users have access to the  computer in “series” n Problems: n Scheduling: n most installations used a  hardcopy sign-up sheet to  reserve computer time n time allocations could  run short or long,  resulting in wasted  computer time n Setup time n a considerable amount of time  was spent just on setting up the  program to run
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This note was uploaded on 12/14/2011 for the course CS 490 taught by Professor Weisskop during the Fall '11 term at University of Alabama - Huntsville.

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Chapter02-OS7e - Operating Systems: Internals andDesign...

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