Chapter03-OS7e - Operating Systems: Internals andDesign...

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Chapter 3 Process Description  and Control Seventh Edition By William Stallings Operating  Systems: Internals  and Design  Principles
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Operating Systems: Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles Internals and Design Principles The concept of process is fundamental to the structure of modern computer operating systems. Its evolution in analyzing problems of synchronization, deadlock, and scheduling in operating systems has been a major intellectual contribution of computer science. WHAT CAN BE AUTOMATED?: THE COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH STUDY, MIT Press, 1980
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A computer platform  consists of a collection of  hardware resources Computer applications  are developed to perform  some task It is inefficient for  applications to be written  directly for a given  hardware platform The OS was developed to  provide a convenient,  feature-rich, secure, and  consistent interface for  applications to use We can think of the OS as  providing a uniform,  abstract representation of  resources that can be  requested and accessed by  applications
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OS Management of  OS Management of  Application Execution Application Execution Resources are made available to multiple  applications The processor is switched among multiple  applications so all will appear to be  progressing The processor and I/O devices can be used  efficiently
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Two essential elements of a process are: When the processor begins to execute the program code, we refer to  this executing entity as a  process
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While the program is executing, this process can be uniquely  characterized by a number of elements, including:
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Process Control  Block Contains the process elements It is possible to interrupt a running  process and later resume execution  as if the interruption had not  occurred Created and managed by the  operating system Key tool that allows support for  multiple processes
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Process  Process  Execution Execution
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Each process runs to completion Figure 3.3
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Figure 3.4
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A process may be in one of two states: running not-running
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Queuing Diagram
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Table 3.1   Reasons for Process Creation
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Process Termination Process Termination There must be a means for a process to indicate its  completion A batch job should include a HALT instruction or an  explicit OS service call for termination For an interactive application, the action of the user will  indicate when the process is completed  (e.g. log off,  quitting an application)
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Table 3.2 Reasons for Process Termination
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Five-State Process Model
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Process States for Trace of Figure 3.4
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Multiple  Blocked  Queues
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Swapping involves moving part or all of a process from main memory to disk
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This note was uploaded on 12/14/2011 for the course CS 490 taught by Professor Weisskop during the Fall '11 term at University of Alabama - Huntsville.

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Chapter03-OS7e - Operating Systems: Internals andDesign...

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