College Algebra Exam Review 270

College Algebra Exam Review 270 - 280 (c) (d) 6. RINGS Each...

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Unformatted text preview: 280 (c) (d) 6. RINGS Each element x 2 R can be expressed as a sum x D a1 C Cas , with ai 2 Ai for all i , in exactly one way. If 0 D a1 C C as , with ai 2 Ai for all i , then ai D 0 for all i. Proof. The equivalence of (a), (c), and (d) is by Proposition 3.5.1 on page 186. Clearly (b) implies (a). Let us assume (a) and show that the map .a1 ; : : : ; as / 7! a1 C C as is actually a ring isomorphism. We have Ai Aj  Ai \ Aj D f0g if i ¤ j (using condition (d)). Therefore, .a1 C C as /.b1 C C bs / D a1 b1 C C as bs ; whenever ai ; bi 2 Ai for all i . It follows that the map is a ring isomorphism. I Exercises 6.2 Ä Ä A0 A0 6.2.1. Show that A 7! and A 7! are homomorphisms of 0A 00 the ring of 2-by-2 matrices into the ring of 4-by-4 matrices. The former is unital, but the latter is not. 6.2.2. Define a map ' from the ring RŒx of polynomials with real coefficients into the ring M of 3-by-3 matrices by 2 3 a0 a1 a2 X '. ai x i / D 4 0 a0 a1 5 : 0 0 a0 Show that ' is a unital ring homomorphism. What is the kernel of this homomorphism? 6.2.3. If ' W R ! S is a ring homomorphism and R has an identity element 1, show that e D '.1/ satisfies e 2 D e and ex D xe D exe for all x 2 '.R/. 6.2.4. Show that if ' W R ! S is a ring homomorphism, then '.R/ is a subring of S . 6.2.5. Show that if ' W R ! S and W S ! T are ring homomorphisms, then the composition ı ' is a ring homomorphism. ...
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