muon_collider_geer_annurev.nucl.010909.083736

muon_collider_geer_annurev.nucl.010909.083736 -...

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ANRV391-NS59-16 ARI 13 June 2009 15:30 R E V I W S N A D C Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories Steve Geer Muon Accelerator Research and Development Department, Accelerator Physics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510; email: [email protected] Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 2009. 59:347–65 The Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science is online at nucl.annualreviews.org This article’s doi: 10.1146/annurev.nucl.010909.083736 Copyright c ± 2009 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 0163-8998/09/1123-0347$20.00 The U.S. Government has the right to retain a nonexclusive, royalty-free license in and to any copyright covering this paper. Key Words accelerators, storage rings, high-energy colliders, muon sources Abstract Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate O (10 21 ) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motiva- tion, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders. 347 Review in Advance first posted online on June 23 , 200 9 . (Minor changes may still occur before final publication online and in print.) Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 2009.59:347-365. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA - Smathers Library on 11/24/09. For personal use only.
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ANRV391-NS59-16 ARI 13 June 2009 15:30 Contents 1. INTRODUCTION. ........................................................... 348 2. NEUTRINO FACTORIES: CONCEPT AND BEAM PROPERTIES. .......... 349 3. NEUTRINO FACTORIES: PHYSICS. ......................................... 351 4. NEUTRINO FACTORIES: DESIGN AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. ...................................................... 353 4.1. Proton Beam and Target. ................................................... 354 4.2. Radio Frequency in Magnetic Channels. .................................... 355 4.3. Bunching, Phase Rotation, and Cooling. 4.4. Acceleration and Storage. 356 5. MUON COLLIDERS: INTRODUCTION. 358 6. MUON COLLIDERS: DESIGN AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. 360 6.1. Cooling Channel. .......................................................... 6.2. Detector Backgrounds. ..................................................... 361 6.3. Neutrino Radiation. ........................................................ 362 7. OUTLOOK. ................................................................... 363 1. INTRODUCTION The muon, which can be thought of as a heavy electron, lives just long enough ( τ 0 = 2 μ s) to accelerate to high energy before decaying into an electron, a muon-type neutrino, and an electron- type antineutrino ( μ e ν μ ν e ). Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate O (10 21 ) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for construction of ( a ) a neutrino factory (NF), in which high-energy muons decay within the straight sections of a storage ring to produce a beam of neutrinos and antineutrinos, and ( b ) a muon collider (MC), in which μ + and μ are allowed to collide in a storage ring. MCs were first proposed by Budker (1) in 1969. The concept was further developed in the 1970s and 1980s by Skrinsky & Parkhomchuk (2) and Neuffer (3). In the early 1990s, physicists realized that it may be possible to build an MC with a center-of-mass energy ( s) of a few teraelectronvolts and a luminosity in the 10 34 –10 35 cm 2 s 1 range (4, 5), and that development of
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