Unformatted text preview: An Instructor’s Manual to
Church History, Volume Two:
From Pre-Reformation to the Present Day Kenneth J. Woo 0 Introduction
You hold in your hands the instructor’s manual prepared for use with the textbook
Church History, Volume 2 by John D. Woodbridge and Frank A. James III. This guide is
designed to facilitate teaching a survey course in Reformation and modern church history by
providing relevant information and supplemental resources in a format is easily accessible.
The first section contains a list of Internet resources pertaining both to the general study
of church history and to the investigation of specific eras, movements, and themes. This list is
intended as a starting point for your own supplemental research. It will also be helpful for
referring enthusiastic students to additional resources for their study. Individual chapter
summaries contain additional web resources dealing specifically with the material in that chapter.
These summaries follow in the second section of the instructor’s manual. For each
chapter of Church History, Volume 2 you will find key terms, an overview of key points, and a
longer content summary. At the end of each of chapter summary are pedagogical suggestions,
additional web and media sources, and possible essay questions for use in teaching the material.
The student flashcards for this volume correspond with the lists of keywords for each chapter.
The third section provides a list of student learning objectives for each chapter. These
objectives can serve as content overview. They are also meant to function as means of
encouraging and assessing student engagement with the most important ideas in each chapter.
Section four includes a separate 15-question quiz for each chapter. These are designed to
test objective knowledge through true/false, fill in the blank, and multiple-choice questions. A
mid-term and final examination has also been provided with the instructor’s resources apart from
this manual. The mid-term exam covers chapters 1–11 of the textbook and the final exam covers
chapters 12–22. These exams are taken directly from the questions in the chapter quizzes. The
final exam is comprehensive. Approximately one-third of the final is taken from the mid-term.
The final section of this manual contains two sample syllabi. These are recommended
schedules for teaching through Church History, Volume 2. The first is for a typical Monday–
Wednesday–Friday course. The second is for a class that meets on Tuesdays and Thursdays.
It has been a pleasure to prepare this material for you. I sincerely hope that it benefits
you and your students.
Kenneth J. Woo 1 Table of Contents
Student Learning Objectives..........................................................................................................67
Sample Syllabi.............................................................................................................................120 2 Suggested Websites
General Information and Sources for Historical Research: American Society of Church History:
Archives Hub: Gateway to sources in UK historical archives.
Art History Resources (Prof. Christopher L.C.E. Whitombe at Sweet Briar College):
BBC History Online:
The British Library:
Digital Library of Classic Protestant Texts:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online:
Catholic Encyclopedia Online:
Christian Classics Ethereal Library: Digital versions of classic Christian texts.
Europeana: Gateway to digitized books, paintings and museum objects.
Internet History Sourcebooks Project (Fordham University):
Hanover Historical Texts Collection (Hanover College):
Oxford Art Online:
Norton Anthology of English Literature Online:.
PBS FRONTLINE Documentaries:
Project Gutenberg (Electronic Books):
Library of Congress:
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Information on Specific Historical Eras, Events, Movements, Institutions, and Figures: BioLogos Foundation: Relating Christianity and modern science.
Catholic Reformation Research Network:
Center for Barth Studies (Princeton Theological Seminary):
Christianity Today Magazine:
Dostoyevsky Research Station:
Early English Books Online (EEBO):
Eighteenth-Century Resources (Prof. Jack Lynch, Rutgers University):
“Elizabeth R”: Information on the times and reign of Elizabeth I of England.
3 “Famous Trials” Resources from Professor Douglas Linder (University of Missouri–
Kansas City School of Law):
German History in Documents and Images:
Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online:
Interactive First Vatican Council Photograph Album:
ITER - The Bibliography of Medieval and Renaissance Europe, (1300-1799):
J. S. Bach Home Page:
Labyrinth – Resources for Medieval Studies (Georgetown University):
The Newman Reader: Information about and works by Cardinal John Henry Newman.
Napoleon Foundation: Information on Napoleonic history and the history of France’s
First and Second Empires.
PBS Evolution Series Website:
Post-Reformation Digital Library: Digital versions of primary sources in postReformation and early modern theology and philosophy.
Project Wittenberg (selected works by and about Martin Luther):
Sixteenth-Century Society and Conference:
Society for Reformation Research:
Swissworld: Gateway for materials on Swiss culture and history.
The Victorian Web: Resources on Victorian Period history and culture.
Virtual Museum of French Protestantism:
Voltaire Foundation (University of Oxford):
The Wesley Center Online (Northwest Nazarene University): Resources on the
Wesleys and the Wesleyan Tradition.
Westminster Assembly Project: Resources for research on the Westminster Assembly
and its context. 4 Chapter Summaries
Chapter 1 – European Christianity in an Age of Adversity, Renaissance, and Discovery
Black Death (1347-50); Respublica Christiana; Avignon; Babylonian Captivity of the Church
(1309-77); Catherine of Siena (1347-80); Great Schism (1378-1417); Conciliar Movement;
Council of Pisa (1409); Council of Constance (1414-18); Sacrosancta (1415); Frequens (1417);
John Wycliffe (1324–84); John Hus (c. 1369-1415); Eugenius IV (1431-47); Execrabilis (1460);
Pius II (1458-64); “Renaissance Popes”; Mehmed II (1444-45, 1451-81); Constantinople;
Ottoman Empire; “Marranos”; “Moriscos”; Line of Demarcation
Key Points Due to the complexities of rapid social, political and religious change, the experience of
European Christians in the late Middle Ages (c. 1300–1500) defies easily generalizations. The Catholic Church struggled with internal and external threats to its unity and power. Although it overcame scandal and internal dissent to reassert its claim as supreme
authority over a unified Christendom on the eve of the Protestant Reformation, in reality
the papacy lost much of its former influence over increasingly powerful European rulers.
For European Christians in the late Middle Ages (c. 1300–1500), a firm conviction that
God's purposes guided the unfolding of history was severely tested in an age of deep personal
suffering, unprecedented catastrophes and ecclesiastical scandals. The massive devastation of
war, famine and plague was widely taken as the activity of unseen, malevolent forces in the
cosmos, or even as a sign of divine judgment. Many lived in constant fear of physical perils and
spiritual adversaries. Both within and outside the church, this period was an “Age of Adversity.”
Rome’s place at the center of a united “Christendom” was in grave peril at the start of the
fourteenth century. The papacy toppled into a state of crisis in 1303 when, amid conflict with the
kings of England and France, Pope Boniface VIII (1294–1303) died one month after being
assaulted by supporters of France’s Philip IV (1285–1303). Boniface’s humiliation stunned
observers and signaled changes in long-standing political loyalties. The ideal of a single
“Christian Republic,” ruled by an emperor and by the pope as Christ’s vicar on earth, was giving
way to local allegiances to the kings and princes of independent nation-states and city-states.
The weakening of the papacy became even more apparent with Pope Clement V’s 1309
decision to relocate to Avignon, just outside France. Clement benefited from French support and
the departure from Rome was seen by many contemporaries as a blatant accommodation to the
French monarchy. The poet Petrarch decried it as the “Babylonian Captivity of the Church,” a
description now applied to the entire period from 1309 to 1377, during which seven popes lived
in Avignon. The resentment many Europeans felt toward the apparent French influence was fed
by strong “nationalistic” pride in various regions and a growing sense of independence from the
papacy. Many in the church linked the ravages of war, famine, and disease with God’s judgment
for moving the papacy. The “Captivity” ended when Gregory XI returned to Rome in 1377. 5 Upon Gregory’s death in 1378, French cardinals contested the election of the Italian Pope
Urban VI, demanded his abdication, and subsequently elected Clement VII to be pope. After an
exchange of excommunications and military conflicts, Urban retained Rome while Clement
retreated to Avignon. Thus began the Great Schism (1378–1417) during which two papacies—
one in Rome, the other in Avignon—claimed legitimacy to rule as the Vicar of Christ on earth.
The Conciliar Movement arose as a response to the schism, claiming that church power is
vested in the entire “congregation of the faithful” and should be exercised through councils. The
initial result was not promising. In 1409 the Council of Pisa deposed the two reigning pontiffs
and elected Alexander V as pope, only to have its decision rejected by both Rome and Avignon.
Now there were three popes, each with a loyal following in certain parts of Europe. Not until the
Council of Constance (1414–18) would the schism be healed, and only because the council had
the broad support of monarchs and church leaders across Europe to assert its authority over the
papacy. Martin V was elected in 1417 following the resignation or deposition of all rival popes.
The council also silenced the Bohemian priest, John Hus, for teaching that Christ and
Scripture had final authority over church doctrine. Seeing his position as a rejection of its own
authority, the council condemned Hus, who refused to recant his beliefs unless Scripture refuted
them. Hus was burned as a heretic in 1415, sparking revolts among his supporters in Bohemia.
A final goal of the Council of Constance was to address the long acknowledged need for
church reform. The council issued the decree Frequens (1417) that called for regular councils as
a defense against heresy and corruption. Hope for reform via councils was short-lived, however,
as the Conciliar Movement met resistance from popes who reasserted what they believed to be
their rightful authority. Pope Eugenius IV undermined the Council of Basel (1431–38, 1449),
persuading delegates from the Eastern church gathered at Florence in 1439 to recognize him as
supreme monarch of a unified Christendom. In 1460 Pope Pius II issued the bull Execrabilis,
which effectively annulled the decrees of conciliar power put forth by the Council of Constance.
The decades following the Council of Constance saw the rise of “Renaissance Popes,”
who sought to reestablish papal power. In addition to political and military campaigns among
the Italian city-states, these popes increased Rome’s artistic and architectural splendor as a way
of elevating the papacy’s visible strength. Michelangelo and Raphael were among the masters
whose work was supported by the Renaissance Popes. Throughout this era, the papacy’s
reputation also suffered from the profligate lifestyles of papal rulers like Alexander VI and Julius
II. Yet, despite the abuses of their church leaders, most Italians maintained a devout way of life.
The “Age of Discovery” emerged in the fifteenth century as an era of increased sea
exploration by European and Asian nations. It was made possible by improved technology and
spurred by a demand for unique goods, and also responded to the need for new trade routes to
replace those now controlled by the Turkish Ottomans. In 1453 the Ottomans captured the
Byzantine capital, Constantinople, forcing realignments in the Eastern Orthodox Church and
orienting the Byzantium Empire toward Islam. The Ottoman power was viewed as a constant
threat by the papacy and the Western European political leaders, who saw exploration as a way to
establish their position against both the Ottoman Empire and one another. European “discovery”
often had negative effects on the peoples they encountered. By the end of the fifteenth century,
the papacy had survived tumultuous decades of adversity, renaissance and discovery to maintain
its visible role as supreme head of a unified Christendom. At the same time, the shift in
European politics toward strong regional monarchs was a check on papal power. 6 Pedagogical Suggestions: Ask students to define “superstition,” give examples of superstitious beliefs or behaviors
they have observed and discuss why such ways of thinking and acting appeal to people. Point out Rome on a map of Europe in the Middle Ages. Have the class come up with a
list of reasons why the papacy may have had difficulty asserting its authority over
Europe. Have students debate the advantages and disadvantages of rule by “one” vs. by “many.”
Other Media Sources/Websites Catholic Encyclopedia Online: A massive early twentieth-century English-language
compendium of information on the history and teachings of the Roman Catholic Church,
including a list of popes with short biographies. Internet Medieval Sourcebook (Fordham University): A robust collection of public
domain and copy-permitted texts design to assist with the teaching of medieval history,
including primary sources, maps, and short articles.
“European Exploration” at Britannica Online: Helpful information and resources on
the Age of Discovery.
Suggested Essay Questions Were the late Middle Ages (c. 1300–1500) at time of triumph or defeat for the Roman
papacy? Support your answer with examples from the history of that period. Why might one call the fifteenth century an “Age of Adversity?” In what ways did
Europeans in the late Middle Ages attempt to explain the difficulties they faced daily? How was nationalism expressed in the late Middle Ages? Why was this a threat to the
old ideal of a unified “Christendom”? Describe the three goals the Council of Constance (1414–18) set out to accomplish. How
do all three of these goals relate to questions about the nature of authority in the church? Explain the relationship between art and the papacy in the era of “Renaissance Popes.” Was the “Age of Discovery” a positive or negative development overall? Explain. 7 Chapter 2 – The Renaissance and the Christian Faith
Renaissance; Histoire de France (1855–67); Jacob Burckhardt (1818–97); Giovanni Boccaccio
(1313–75); “universal man”; Middle Ages; humanism; Scholastics; Petrarch (1304–74);
Coluccio Salutati (1331–1406); ad fontes; Florentine Platonic Academy; prisca theologica;
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463–94); Girolamo Savonarola (1452–98); Leonardo Da Vinci
(1452–1519); Gutenberg Bible; Rudolf Agricola (1444–95); devotio moderna; Jacobus Faber
(1455–1536); Desiderius Erasmus (1469–1536); Northern Renaissance; Christian Hebraism
Key Points Renaissance humanism, with its appreciation for the knowledge and culture of antiquity,
emerged within a culture deeply rooted in a long Christian tradition. Although often at
odds with the philosophical approach of scholasticism, Christian humanists generally
applied humanistic learning and methods to support, not to undermine, the Christian
faith. The humanist ad fontes approach to studying ancient texts from the earliest manuscripts
created an interest across Europe in the Bible’s original languages. A combination of
humanistic learning and biblical studies led to early calls within the church for reform
according to Scripture that would influence the beliefs of many Protestant leaders.
Historians have debated both the existence and nature of a European “Renaissance,” a
historical term appearing for the first time in Michelet’s Histoire de France (1855-67). Much of
the earliest scholarship was informed by the writings of fourteenth-century Italian thinkers who
viewed their own era as one of cultural rebirth after a period of cultural darkness. Questions
have arisen over how widespread the artistic, literary, and cultural innovations of Renaissance
“humanism” actually were, whether this can neatly be separated from developments already
present in the late Middle Ages, and whether or not the interest in pagan cultural achievements
that characterized this period was inherently hostile to Christianity.
For many, Petrarch exemplifies the era’s deep appreciation for the wisdom of the
Ancients, especially Cicero, as well as apparent tensions between pagan philosophy and
Christian faith. In the face of challenges raised by theologians, Petrach’s disciple, Coluccio
Salutati, vigorously defended the benefits for Christians in the study of pagan thinkers. Salutati’s
writings inspired the citizens of Florence to resist tyranny by vividly portraying the city’s
republican history from ancient sources. This left an indelible appreciation for antiquity in
Florence, where literary studies and arts flourished in the fifteenth century. The scholarship of
Petrarch and Salutati, who sought lost manuscripts from Latin and Greek antiquity, fostered
humanism’s concern to return ad fontes, “to the sources” of both pagan and Christian texts. This
approach resulted in greater emphasis on textual criticism, philology and other linguistic details,
as opposed to the focus on logical argument more typically embraced by Christian Scholastics.
Although Christian humanists generally strove to present their scholarship in harmony
with Christian faith, they sometimes reached conclusions that challenged accepted church
teaching and thus raised the suspicions of other theologians. Individuals such as Lorenzo Valla, a
Christian humanist who used textual analysis to question and certain doctrinal sources, 8 exacerbated tensions between humanists and Scholastics. Marsilio Fincino translated the Greek
writings of Plato and Plotinus, arguing that Plato’s philosophy reflects a “primal theology”
(prisca theologica) that predates the Christian Scriptures and unites biblical teaching and certain
streams of pagan thought. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola offered lofty reflections On the Dignity
of Man (1486), which elevated human potential and accomplishments within a generally positive
appraisal of Christianity. While such writers certainly gave voice to heterodox ideas and
syncretic perspectives, it would be unfair to label their views as species of “atheistic” humanism.
As humanism began to spread from Florence to various towns in Italy and eventually to
Northern Europe, it emerged in schools as an alternative to traditional medieval curricula.
Humanists championed the necessity of liberal arts and rhetoric for the education of responsible,
“ideal” citizens. Renaissance educators understood immersion in the classics of pagan and
Christian antiquity as something that complemented, rather than undermined, Christian faith.
The humanistic models of Italian universities found enthusiastic adherents and emulators across
Europe in the fifteenth century...
View Full Document