MYP-5 UNIT-3 CIVIL AND SOCIAL PROTEST.docx - MIT PUNEu2019...

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MIT PUNE’ S Vishwashanti Gurukul Subject: Individuals and Societies Name of the students: Unit: 3 Rights and Social Protests Civil Rights Movement in America: Timeline The civil rights movement was an organized effort by black Americans to end racial discrimination and gain equal rights under the law. It began in the late 1940s and ended in the late 1960s. Although tumultuous at times, the movement was mostly nonviolent and resulted in laws to protect every American’s constitutional rights, regardless of color, race, sex or national origin. July 26, 1948: President Harry Truman issues Executive Order 9981 to end segregation in the Armed Services. May 17, 1954: Brown v. Board of Education , a consolidation of five cases into one, is decided by the Supreme Court , effectively ending racial segregation in public schools. Many schools, however, remained segregated. December 1, 1955: Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery, Alabama bus. Her defiant stance prompts a year-long Montgomery bus boycot . January 10-11, 1957: Sixty black pastors and civil rights leaders from several southern states—including Martin Luther King, Jr. —meet in Atlanta, Georgia to coordinate nonviolent protests against racial discrimination and segregation. September 4, 1957: Nine black students known as the “ Litle Rock Nine ,” are blocked from integrating into Central High School in Litle Rock, Arkansas . President Dwight D. Eisenhower eventually sends federal troops to escort the students, however, they continue to be harassed. September 9, 1957: Eisenhower signs the Civil Rights Act of 1957 into law to help protect voter rights. The law allows federal prosecution of those who suppress another’s right to vote. February 1, 1960: Four college students in Greensboro, North Carolina refuse to leave a Woolworth’s “whites only” lunch counter without being served. Their nonviolent demonstration sparks similar “sit-ins” throughout the city and in other states. June 11, 1963: Governor George C. Wallace stands in a doorway at the University of Alabama to block two black students from registering. The standoff continues until President John F. Kennedy sends the National Guard to the campus. August 28, 1963: Approximately 250,000 people take part in The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Martin Luther King gives the closing address in front of the Lincoln Memorial and states, “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.’” September 15, 1963: A bomb at 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham , Alabama kills four young girls and injures several other people prior to Sunday services. The bombing fuels angry protests. July 2, 1964: President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law, preventing employment discrimination due to race, color, sex, religion or national origin. Title VII of the Act establishes the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to help prevent workplace discrimination.

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