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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Sociology
Lecture 5: Urbanization and Segregation
Wednesday, September 15 Social realities of urban life "Intensification of nervous stimulation" (i.e., sensory overload) Transitory, random encounters with countless people can lead to exhaustion and anxiety Defense mechanism develops in the form of a "blas attitude," or a feeling of reserve, toward others Facilitates the development of the impersonal, rationalistic mentality that is needed for market exchange Urbanization as a problem Weakening of primary group ties, replacement with secondary ties Reduced effectiveness of informal social control mechanisms (e.g., family, religion) Crime/delinquency Divorce Dropouts Urbanization and control Coexistence of businesses and residences "Eyes on the street" Widespread usage of sidewalks
Informal social control Residential segregation Residential segregation The spatial separation of different social groups in different residential areas Index of dissimilarity A measure of the extent to which members of two groups (e.g., whites and African-Americans) Africanlive in different neighborhoods The proportion (or percent) of one group that would need to move to other neighborhoods in order to achieve an equal distribution of the two groups across all neighborhoods American apartheid
Douglas Massey Nancy Denton Social problems are concentrated in the inner-city, which are inneroften predominantly African-American. But why? African The root cause of this correlation is long-standing residential longsegregation As low-skilled African-Americans entered the city for lowAfricanmanufacturing jobs, low-skilled whites left the city for a smaller lownumber of service jobs (i.e., "white flight") Economic restructuring occurred, hollowing out the inner-city innermanufacturing centers, leading to high levels of poverty among the people who were "stuck" there. ...
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- Fall '05