Bio 201 F11 Lect 15 (True) v3r

Bio 201 F11 Lect 15 (True) v3r -...

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Biology in the News [see folder on BB] new mathema6cal models are being developed to predict and mi6gate "ex6nc6on cascades” An ex6nc6on cascade is a phenomenon that o?en occurs when a single key species in a community goes ex6nct ‐ massive changes at other levels of the food web can throw the community into erra6c cycles that may cause other species to go ex6nct and/or the en6re community to collapse the new model predicts that cascades can o?en be prevented by targe6ng some species for reduc6on in numbers or elimina6on, rather than conserva6on ‐ this was a surprise and goes against the intui6on of many conserva6on biologists models of this sort are part of the burgeoning science of "systems biology" and can be used to understand many complex biological phenomena, including cellular and biochemical cascades of events in development and disease hEp://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp? cntn_id=118384&WT.mc_id=USNSF_51&WT.mc_ev=click
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the current view (LIFE 9 th edi6on)
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Number of Tissue Layers (Germ Layers) Sponges - not organized in germ layers Diploblastic animals- 2 layers (aka “diploblasts”) Ectoderm (outside) Endoderm (inside) Triploblastic animals- 3 layers (aka “triploblasts”) Ectoderm (outside) Mesoderm (middle) Endoderm (inside) NOTE: germ layers is a completely different concept than germ line.
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cnidarians are diploblasts all bilaterians are triploblasts below: formation of mesoderm in a frog embryo http://www.locolobo.org/frog_egg.gif http://universe-review.ca/I10-54-cnidaria.jpg
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the current view (LIFE 9 th edi6on)
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e.g. insect, crab e.g. human, sea star http://www.bio102.net/bio102/bodplan_files/image018.jpg zygote blastula (cross section) A key classifica6on division in the bilaterians: protostome vs. deuterostome LIFE, 8e Fig. 31.2 gastrulation
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the current view (LIFE 9 th edi6on)
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