35-Energy Flow

35-Energy Flow - Fact of the day Highly biased female...

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Fact of the day Stony Brook researchers looked at effluent from municipal sewage treatment plants in Brooklyn for the effects of estrogen like chemicals on flounder We treat sewage for solid waste, bacteria, other pathogens, but not largely for the medications we take… Highly biased female sex-ratios in Winter flounder in NY’ s Jamaica Bay
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A measure of the potential for transmission The basic reproductive number, R 0 , the mean number of individuals directly infected by an infectious case through the total infectious period, when introduced to a susceptible population R 0 = p c d contacts per unit time probability of transmission per contact duration of infectiousness Infection will …. . disappear, if R < 1 become endemic, if R = 1 become epidemic, if R > 1 Reproductive Number, R 0
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Levels of Occurence = Endemic - Epidemic - Pandemic Endemic Transmission occur, but the number of cases remains constant Epidemic The number of cases increases Pandemic When epidemics occur at several continents – global epidemic Time R = 1 R > 1 R < 1
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Understanding Ecological systems through Energy Flow • Life = process of acquisition and incorporation of energy that builds order • We can understand the importance of interactions of organisms by understanding patterns of energy flow through the ecosystem
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Initial harvest of energy flux from the Sun is by Photosynthesis – Plants – Algae (Protists) – Some few micro-organisms (chemosynthesis: a mere footnote in proportion) Primary Production
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What happens to energy from the sun? Reflected by clouds and atmosphere Reflected by surface Albedo Absorbed as heat Absorbed in photosynthesis 100% 23% 8% 20% Absorbed by atmosphere and clouds 57% 47% 2%
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Energy Budget • Albedo: depends on reflectivity • Water: 2% • Snow: 50-90% • Clouds: 90% • Vegetation: 5-30% • Photosynthesis: 2% chemical energy • Heat: the rest (8-90%) drives climate
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This note was uploaded on 12/16/2011 for the course BIO 201 taught by Professor True during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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35-Energy Flow - Fact of the day Highly biased female...

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