Literacy Tests part 1 - Literacy Tests A number of states...

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Literacy Tests A number of states provided loophole for illiterate whites by including an “ understanding” clause whereby an illiterate person could prove they read. Blacks who tried were uniformly declared to have failed it. Poll Tax Poll taxes raised an economic barrier, one that also disenfranchised many poor whites. Andrew Carnegie Born in Scotland and came to United States at 12. He specialized in the iron business. He possessed great talent as a salesman. He preffered to expand in bad times.1875 he built the J.Edgar Thomson Steel works, named after his biggest customer. He employed chemists and other specialists and soon was making steel from iron oxides. He sold rails by paying “commissions” to railroad purchasing agents. By 1890 the Carnegie steel company dominated the industry. Carnegie retired to devote to philanthropic work. Carpetbaggers and Scalawags The real rulers of the “ Black Republican” governments were white: the “ scalawags”- southern willing to cooperate with the Republicans because they accepted the results of the war and wished to advance their own interests. “Carpetbaggers” Northerners who went to the south as idealists to help the freed slaves, as employees of the federal government. Settlers
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This note was uploaded on 12/16/2011 for the course HIST 1302 taught by Professor Flaherty during the Spring '11 term at Sam Houston State University.

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Literacy Tests part 1 - Literacy Tests A number of states...

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