chambers37 - Mitochondria Energy and Citric Acid Cycle...

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Mitochondria, Energy and Mitochondria, Energy and Citric Acid Cycle Citric Acid Cycle Reading: Harper’s Biochemistry pp. 145-148 Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry 3rd Ed. pp. 685-690
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OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES To examine how shuttle systems are needed and used for transporting nucleotides and reducing equivalents across the inner mitochondrial membrane. To examine regulation of oxidative phosphorylation. To briefly examine the mitochondrial genome and diseases associated with mutations.
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Because the inner mitochondrial membrane is generally impermeable to charged species, specific transport systems are required to transport ADP and Pi in, and ATP out, of the matrix
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Adenine nucleotide translocase Adenine nucleotide translocase Binds ADP 3- in the intermembrane space and transports it into the matrix in exchange for an ATP 4- molecule simultaneously transported out. The proton-motive force drives ATP- ADP exchange due to net charges on ADP 3- and ATP 4- , favored by transmembrane electrochemical gradient. Adenine nucleotide translocase is specifically inhibited by atractyloside (toxic glycoside from a species of
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Phosphate Translocase Phosphate Translocase Also essential to oxidative phosphorylation Promotes symport of one H 2 PO 4 - and one H + into the matrix (no net flow of charge) Also favored by the transmembrane proton gradient (low proton concentration in the matrix) One proton moves from P to N side of inner membrane (without going through ATP synthase), therefore consuming some of the energy generated by electron transfer.
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Shuttle systems are required for Shuttle systems are required for mitochondrial oxidation of mitochondrial oxidation of cytosolic cytosolic NADH NADH NADH is generated in the matrix by enzymes of the citric acid cycle, and can be used directly by the
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chambers37 - Mitochondria Energy and Citric Acid Cycle...

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