chambers40 - Hormonal Regulation glycolysis/gluconeogenesis...

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Hormonal Regulation: Hormonal Regulation: glycolysis/gluconeogenesis glycolysis/gluconeogenesis - glucose homeostasis - glucose homeostasis Reading: Harper’s Biochemistry Chapter 21 Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry 3rd Ed. pp. 878-884
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OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how blood glucose levels are regulated by hormones, especially epinephrine, glucagon, and insulin. 2. To examine metabolic consequences of loss of glucose homeostasis.
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Some Facts - Some Facts - The most important metabolic fuels are glucose and fatty acids. In normal circumstances, glucose is the only fuel the brain uses. Glucose is also preferentially used by muscle during the initial stages of exercise. To ensure the continuous provision of glucose to the brain and other tissues, metabolic fuels are stored. Carbohydrates are stored as glycogen - the amount of available glycogen stored is not large - about 75g in the liver and 400g in the muscles. Liver glycogen can supply glucose for no longer than 16h. To provide glucose over longer periods, the body transforms non-carbohydrate compounds into glucose through gluconeogenesis.
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Long-chain fatty acids are the ideal Long-chain fatty acids are the ideal storage fuel storage fuel The caloric value of fats (9 Kcal/g) is higher than that of either carbohydrate or protein (4 Kcal/g), and therefore long-chain fatty acids are ideal storage fuel. The body has a virtually unlimited capacity for the accumulation of fats e.g. a 150 lb. man will have on average 30 lbs. of fat stored as adipose tissue triglycerides. Fatty acids can support the body’s energy needs over prolonged periods of time. In extreme circumstances, humans can fast for as long as 60- 90 days and obese persons longer.
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The concentration of blood glucose is The concentration of blood glucose is regulated with narrow limits regulated with narrow limits Physiological effects of low blood glucose in humans. Blood glucose levels of 40 mg/100ml and below constitute severe hypoglycemia
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Sources of blood glucose Sources of blood glucose Diet - most digestible carbohydrates ultimately form glucose and other simple sugars that are transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein.
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