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Unformatted text preview: Case presentation on Pulmonary Edema
Complicating Severe Preeclampsia
Presented by Dr. Nicole Hodge
Dr. Norman Bolden
6 June 06 Overview
Severe preeclampsia – pathophysiology, Dx,
maternal/fetal issues, Treatment
Standards of care and goals of anesthetic management
Case - Ante partum flash Pulmonary edema
A syndrome characterized by the new onset of hypertension and
proteinuria after 20 weeks gestation. Additional signs and
symptoms that can occur include edema, visual disturbances,
headache, epigastric pain, thrombocytopenia, and abnormal liver
function. These clinical manifestations are the results of
mild to severe microangiopathy of target organs such as brain,
liver, kidney, and placenta.
liver, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF PREECLAMPSIA
A state of endothelial dysfunction secondary to excessive amounts of
circulating factors released from the diseased placenta. These factors
effect the establishment of a suitable vascular network of the placenta
needed to supply oxygen and nutrients to the fetus.
Molecular/Cellular level Abnormal expression of VEGF and sFlt-1 (Vascular endothelial growth factor –
proangiogenic and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1- anti-angiogenic factors
respectively) appear to play a central role.
Increased expression of cytokines, angiotensin, catecholamines, and pro-coagulant
factors. Anatomic level
Anatomic Increased vascular tone
Increased vascular permeability
Ischemia of target organs (brain, liver, kidney, placenta) Multisystemic Disease
CNS – Cortical blindness, cerebral edema, cerebral hemorrhage, and seizures
Cardiovascular – Hypovolemia, increased SVR, LVH, increase sensitivity to
catecholamines, sympathomimetics, and oxytocin
Respiratory – pulmonary edema, V/Q mistmatch, airway edema
Renal – Decreased renal blood flow, increased GFR, proteinuria, increased BUN
Hepatic – subscabular hemorrhage, abnormal LFTs, decreased plasma
Hematologic – Prolonged bleeding time, platelet dysfunction, thrombocytopenia,
Placenta – Uteroplacental insufficiency, placental abruption, chronic fetal
hypoxia, IUGR, premature labor, premature birth.
hypoxia, Diagnosis of Severe Preeclampsia
If one or more of the following criteria are present:
Systolic blood pressure > 160 mmHg
Diastolic blood pressure greater than 110 mmHg
Proteinuria greater than 5 g/24 hrs
Evidence of end organ damage
Evidence Oliguria (<500ml/24hr)
Cerebral or visual disturbances
Pulmonary edema or cyanosis
Epigastric pain or right upper-quadrant pain
Impaired liver function
Fetal growth restriction
*ACOG Compendium of Selected Publications Goals
The goal of the anesthesiologist
Control CNS irritability
Control Magnesium sulfate – anti-convulsant; reduces irritability of the neuromuscular
jxn. Restore intravasuclar fluid volume Strictly monitor urine output
CVP monitor with goal 4-6 cm H20 Normalize blood pressure Magnesium sulfate – direct vasodilating action on smooth muscles of arterioles
Labetolol, Hydralazine, nifedipine, SNP (in extreme circumstances due to fetus
susceptability to cyanide toxicity)
susceptability Correct coagulation abnormalities
Correct Platelets, FFP, Cryoprecipitate
Platelets, Effects of Increasing Plasma Magnesium Levels
MgSO4 in excess of therapeutic range Skeletal muscle weakness Respiratory depression Cardiac arrest (Ca++ can counter-act this) MgSO4 potentiates NMB and sedative effects of opiods
Normal Plasma level
ECG Changes (Prolonged P-Q, widened QRS)
Loss of deep tendon reflexes
SA and AV node block
Cardiac Arrest mEq/L
25 Anatomical Effects Functional Effects
Functional effects Airway edema
Widened AP and
Diaphragm Increased respiratory drive Minimal change in TLC
Increased Minute ventilation
Reduced FRC Increased cardiac output
Normal diaphramatic Fxn Widened Subcostal
Increased O2 consumption
and CO2 production
Definitive treatment for Preeclampsia is delivery of the fetus and placenta.
Vaginal Delivery – Lumbar epidural No fetal distress Before catheter placement, r/o coagulopathy and insure adequate volume replacement.
Cesarean Delivery – Regional or GA Maternal/and or fetal status dictates the urgency for delivery Use epidural if in place. Maintain volume status. Typically, drops in BP improve
placental blood flow.
placental Spinal anesthesia, in the past, has been controversial due to possibility of severe
hypotension. However, it has been shown to be a safe technique for cesarean delivery in
severe General anesthesia is an acceptable way to manage preeclamptic pts, however, there are
Pulmnary Edema Case Report
38 yo G1P0, 25 wks gestation, was transferred to MHMC/High Risk
Pregnancy (from OSH) for management of acute on chronic hypertension
(systolic >200 mm Hg). Her pressures were stabilized with magnesium
sulfate and hydralazine. No fetal distress. After approx. 48 hrs., pt started to
c/o of chest pressure and shortness of breath. Also intermittent episodes of
variable decelerations/severe fetal bradycardia occurred. Cardiology consult
with echocardiogram was obtained. Pt BP required prn labetolol. High risk
team plan was to continue BP control and requested for anesthesia to place an
arterial line. Case Report
Anesthesia Preoperative Assessment
PMH/SH – Chronic HTN, Anxiety, Depression/Breast biopsy
MEDS – Methyldopa 500mg po bid
ALLERGIES – Sulfa, erythromycin
SH/FH – quit smoking prior to conception/HTN
ROS – intermittent HA, occasional blurry vision, RUQ/epigastric, ankle swelling Case Report
Anesthesia Preoperative Assessment
VS – BP-184/93, HR-94, R-22, T-37.0, SpO2 – 97%, A&Ox3,No acute distress
Airway exam - MPII, TMD>4FW, FROM
Cardiac – RRR, no murmur appreciated, no JVD,
Pulmonary – CTA B
Extremeties - +3 pedal edema
Neuro – grossly intact. No clonus
CMP – 136/3.6/107/24/3/161 Mg – 3.0
CBC – 9.62/10.7/32.8/289
PT/PTT/INR – 12.5/26.8/1.05
TnI – 0.38/0.37/0.39
AST/ALT -16/16 Case Report
Anesthesia Preoperative Assessment
CXR (on admission)
Heart is borderline in size. No focal infiltrate or pleural effusion is seen.
The pulmonary vasculature is normal in appearance.
Dilated left atrium. Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, significant
mitral valve regurgitation, mild pulmonary hypertension (40-50 mm
LVEF -60% ECG
On admission (1/9/06) – sinus tachycardia
Day of consult (1/11/06) – NSR, LAE Pre-operative Events
The patient became extremely anxious and tachypneic after failed initial
attempts at A-line placement. Base line sats 96-98%. (recall h/o anxiety
Put on 100% mask non-rebreather. Good color and breath sounds were
clear bilaterally. Pulse oximetry was 91-97%, but unreliable because she
was moving around. Further attempts for A-line placement aborted until
After approx 3-5 min, pt started complaining that her “lungs were filling
up”. Auscultation revealed crackles to mid lung fields bilaterally. Sats
decreased to 80%. Airway supported with ambu bag.
A-line placed immediately, ABGs drawn.. Continued O 2 support, PCXR
BP – 269/125 mmHg MAP – 182 mmHg, HR-111
ABG – 7.28/48.8/70.4/90.2/22.2/-4.2
CXR – Opacities in mid and lower lung fields. Pulmonary edema.
Increased distress/respiratory function worsened in supine position
Increased Anesthesia High Risk/OB Conference
Severe Preeclampsia complicated by flash pulmonary edema
Recent echo showed LVEF 60%
Pulmonary edema likely secondary to malignant hypertension
Pt’s inability to lie supine lends immediate c/s technically difficult
Fetal status reassuring Plan
Continue Oxygen support BP control Monitor UOP Monitor ABG’s Monitor Fetus
When oxygenation is acceptable and patient can lie supine, proceed with c/s under regional,
proceed with GA if BP intractable or fetal distress.
proceed Crisis Management
Based on this information, O2 continued with 100% NRB, BP was
aggressively treated with Labetolol (~ 120 mg). Lasix administered to
resolve pulmonary edema.
Continued monitoring of O2 sats
BP’s under better control. NTG gtt started.
ABG after 3 hours – 7.411/37.5/174/99.0/23.4/-0.5
Plan for c-section Intraoperative Events
Pt in sitting position for prep/placement of epidural. Pt noted to have 3+
pitting edema in lumbar area.
1% local and Touhy needle placed at L3-4. + LOR, -heme/CSF. Catheter
advanced easily. Negative aspiration. Test dose negative.
Catheter was secured. Patient placed in supine w/left uterine displacement.
Lidocaine 2% w/1:200K epi and HCO3, total of 22 cc’s was given over 20
minutes. No sensory level was achieved.
Anesthetic plan was converted to GA/RS; Thiopental 250 mg, Sux 120 mg
Surgeons proceeded with CS. Intraoperative Events
MAC line was placed in the right internal jugular vein. CVP 20-30 mmHg.
Swan-Ganz catheter placed. PAP avg 35/25 mmHg. Cardiac output not assessed
due to equipment unavailability.
Prior to delivery Sys >170 / > 100mmHg
After delivery, Sys 110-170 /70-100 mmHg.
Surgery completed w/o complication. Fluids – LR 500 ml, EBL – 700, UOP – 250.
Pt remained intubated. Transferred to the CICU for cardiac care/post-op mgmt. Delivery of Fetus
Delivery of fetus Post-operative Events
Pt was extubated POD#1.
Remained in ICU for several days for mgmt of BP and continued diuresis. Role of Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring with Severe
Most women with severe preeclampsia or eclampsia can be managed
without invasive hemodynamic monitoring.
A review of 17 women with eclampsia reported that use of a pulmonary
artery catheter aided in clinical management decisions. (ACOG Compendium
of Selected Publicatins; J Clin Invest 1993;91:950-960)
of No randomized trials support their use in severe preeclamptic patients.
Invasive hemodynamic monitoring may prove beneficial in preeclamptics
with severe cardiac disease, renal disease, refractory hypertension, oliguria,
or pulmonary edema. (ACOG Compendium of Selected Publications Am J Ostet
Gyn 2000; 182:1397-1403)
Gyn **Level III Research – Opinions based on respected authorities, clinical experience,
descriptive studies, or expert committees.
descriptive Acute Pulmonary Edema in Pregnancy
Cohort study – 62,917 consecutive pregnancies from 1989-1999, to
describe the incidence, predisposing factors contributing to pulmonary
edema in the pregnant patient.
edema Fifty-one women (0.08%) were diagnosed with acute pulmonary edema during
ante partum - post partum period.
24 patients (47%) antepartum
7 patients (14%) intrapartum
20 patients (39%) post partum Most common causes: Tocolytics (25.5%) most commonly MgSO4 and SC terbutaline
Cardiac disease (25.5%)
Fluid overload (21.5%)
Preeclampsia (18%) Risk Factors
Iatrogenic fluid overload
Multiple gestation EBM Discussion on Anesthetic Technique for Cesarean Section
for Severe Preeclampsia
Randomized comparison of general and regional anesthesia for cesarean
delivery in pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia (1995)
delivery Eighty women who required C/S
Randomized - epidural/CSE/General
Intra-operative BP compared in all groups
No statistical or clinical difference in maternal or fetal outcome
Aside from logistical implications, general as well as regional were
shown to be equally acceptable if steps are taken to ensure careful
approach to either method.
approach EBM Discussion on Anesthetic Technique for Cesarean Section
for Severe Preeclampsia
Prospective cohort study; Patients with severe preeclampsia experience
less hypotension during spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery
than healthy parturients (2003).
than Compared incidence and severity of spinal anesthesia assoaicated hypotension
in severe preeclamptic (n=30) vs. healthy parturients (n=30).
Under spinal, mean BP decreased by 32-39% in severe preeclamptics and 3360% in the healthy parturient.
Healthy patients were given more ephedrine than the preeclamptics for
hypotension. Possible explained by increased sensitivity of pressor drugs in
the Findings suggest that the incidenc of severity of spinal hypotension in
preeclamptic patients with severe hypertension may be less than previously
Most likely cause of pulmonary edema is multifactorial. No
specific etiology was assigned.
Unsuspected cardiac findings were common, and there was a
high incidence of valvular disease.
Most pts had severe systolic dysfunction and LVH and not
Underlying cardiac disease is most likely under-diagnosed and
under-reported due to under-use of echocardiography.
A. Sciscione et al. Acute Pulmonary Edema in Pregnancy. Obstetrics &
D. Wallace et. al. Randomized Comparison of General and Regional Anesthesia
for Cesarean Delivery in Pregnancies Complicated by Severe Preeclampsia .
Obstetrics & Gynecology 1995;86:198-98.
A. Aya et al. Patients with Severe Preeclampsia Experience Less Hypotension
During Spinal Anesthesia for Elective Cesarean Delivery than Healthy Parturients:
A Prospective Cohort Comparison. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2003;97:867-72
Baresh, Paul G. Clinical Anesthesia.
Stoelting, R. Anesthesia and Coexisting Disease
Up to Date – www.uptodate.com ; keyword – severe preeclampsia
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