EDEE 280 - Enlightenment and Revolution

EDEE 280 - Enlightenment and Revolution - EDEE 280 2...

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EDEE 280 2. Enlightenment and Revolution Influential Ideas Frame of reference was man, humanity, and society Hobbes (1588-1679) Opinion was very different from Locke and Montesquieu Wrote a very important book called Laviadin Advocated an absolute form of government Claimed man left to his own devices would hurt himself “to tame man’s natural inclinations, man had to be domesticated and in order to domesticate man, you need a strong, powerful, absolute ruler that would impose strict rules and man would accept understanding how important it for man to be put under control” Believed that man needed to be governed in a strict way as long as man wants it and accepts it Rather than man being governed by someone divine, man needs to be governed by someone among these men Tutor to Charles II, hired by Charles I – agreement – both believed in an absolute form of monarchy Locke (1632-1704) Had a very different opinion of man Did not believe man was born good or bad 1690 – outlined ideas in two books or treatises
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EDEE 280 Used the concept of man being born with a clean slate and his life would render him good or bad Society’s job to render man’s experience good or bad If man has a good experience, he won’t turn on his fellow men Concepts of rights and responsibilities were taken further by Locke Role of government to give men rights and get from men responsibility Believed that government’s responsibility includes protecting man’s most fundamental and basic rights that have been adopted and developed by modern societies: life, liberty, and property These rights are not absolute “an absolute right is as contentious as an absolute monarch” Ordered in level of importance These ideals have framed our legal and criminal systems Montesquieu (1689-1755) Strongest advocate ever for dividing and limiting the power of government Said that an absolute form of government runs the risk of turning into a tyrannical form of government Advocated methods to avoid concentrated power in government Legislature, executive, and judiciary Rousseau (1712-1778) Didn’t disagree with Hobbes, Locke, and Montesquieu, but said they did to humanity was science did to nature Didn’t like the simplistic way of understanding rights, power, and the importance of government
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EDEE 280 Said that Hobbes reduced government to one, Locke divided human rights into three, and Montesquieu divided government into three Cannot apply a mathematical or scientific method to society Said what was lacking in the equations is what makes us truly human Human’s sentiment and emotion had to be added to reason Argued that those before him didn’t understand man’s natural, irrational tendencies Believed that a government must include man’s natural side of sentiment and emotion and irrational ways All of these men contributed to the social contract Constitutionalism – England
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