Chapter06 - CHAPTER 6 PROCESS SELECTION AND FACILITY LAYOUT...

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CHAPTER 6 PROCESS SELECTION AND FACILITY LAYOUT Teaching Notes Facility Layout involves physical placement of departments and/or arrangement of equipment within a plant or a service facility. A good layout will possibly lead to smooth flow of material, reduction of inventories, and effective utilization of space. The material in this chapter can be divided into four areas: 1. Process types, process selection and automation. 2. Classification of production systems and (corresponding) types of layouts. 3. Line balancing. 4. Designing process layouts. This chapter provides a good lead-in for the following chapter on design of work systems because it introduces some of the problems that can be associated with work systems. It also describes group technology, cellular manufacturing, and flexible manufacturing systems. Answers to Discussion and Review Questions 1. Process selection refers to the ways organizations choose to produce or provide their goods and services. It involves choice of technology, type of processing, and so on. These choices have important implications for capacity planning, layout of facilities, equipment choices, and the design of work systems. 2. There are five basic process types: a. Job-shop: Job-shop is used when a low volume and a large variety of goods or services are needed. Job-shop involves intermittent processing, high flexibility, skilled workers, relatively large work-in-process inventories and general-purpose machinery. An example is a tool and die shop that is able to produce a wide variety of tools. b. Batch: Batch processing is used when a moderate volume of goods and services is demanded. It is designed to handle a moderate variety in products. The processing is intermittent. The flexibility of the process to produce a variety of goods, the skill of the workers, amount of work-in-process inventories are all less than job shop. A typical example of batch processing is paint manufacturing. c. Repetitive: This type of a process involves higher volumes of more standardized goods or services. The flexibility of the process to produce a variety of goods, the skill of the workers, amount of work-in-process inventories are all less than batch process. Typical examples for this type of process include appliances and automobiles. d. Continuous: This type of a process involves very high volume of highly standardized goods or services. These systems have no flexibility in output or equipment. Workers are generally low skilled and there is no work-in-process inventory. The machines are dedicated to perform specified tasks. Typical examples include petroleum products, steel and sugar manufacturing. e. Project: Projects are designed to be used with non-routine, unusual tasks or activities. These activities are generally not repeated. Equipment flexibility, level of worker skills and work- Operations Management, 9/e 116
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in-process inventory can range from very low to very high. Examples include construction of a dam or a bridge, conversion of the production system from job-shop to group technology,
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Chapter06 - CHAPTER 6 PROCESS SELECTION AND FACILITY LAYOUT...

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