Methodology structure

Methodology structure - Methodology
structure
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Unformatted text preview: Methodology
structure
 General
Info
 In
your
research
papers,
you
will
mainly
have
two
major
types
of
research
questions/hypothesis:
 Descriptive
 Exploratory:
what
are
the
causes
of…
 
 Example:
What
are
the
causes
of
poverty
in
Egypt?
 
 Here,
we
don’t
have
variables,
but
we
have
 concepts
(poverty),
which
needs
operational
 definition
from
the
literature.
 
 Explanatory
 Causal
research:
what
is
the
effect
of…
 
 Example:
What
is
the
effect
of
promotions
on
sales?
 
 Or,
leadership
trust
increases
employee
 productivity.
 
 Here,
we
have
variables,
and
we
know
which
is
the
 dependent
and
which
is
the
independent
variable.
 
 
 Correlational:
what
is
the
relationship
between…
 
 Example:
What
is
the
relationship
between
the
 number
of
charity
events
and
employee
service
 hours?
 
 Here,
we
have
variables,
but
we
don’t
know
which
is
 the
dependent
and
which
is
the
independent
 variable.

 

 Differential:
what
is
the
difference
between…
 
 
 Example:
What
is
the
difference
between
Islamic
 banks
and
commercial
banks
in
credit
risk
 management?
 
 Here,
we
don’t
have
variables,
but
we
have
 concepts
(credit
risk
management),
which
need
 operational
definition
from
the
literature.
 
 
 SURVEYS
 1‐ Method
and
Description:
 • Quantitative:
surveys,
experiments….etc
&
why?
(with
citation)
 • Qualitative:
Case
studies,
interviews,
observations…..etc
&
why?
(with
citation)

 
 2‐ Instrument:

 • What
are
the
measurable
variables?
Provide
support
from
the
literature
(ONLY
in
case
of
 explanatory
casual
research
or
descriptive
correlation
research)
 • In
case
there
are
no
variables,
provide
the
definition
from
the
literature
that
you
will
use
for
the
 main
concepts.
Example:
you
have
many
definitions
for
poverty
in
the
literature,
but
what
will
be
 the
definition
you
will
use
for
your
methodology?
 • Description
of
the
survey
(overview
on
administrative,
target,
and
classification
questions,
question
 types
and
scaling
technique)
 • On
what
basis
the
questions
were
developed?
Use
guidance
from
the
literature.

 
 3‐ Sampling:
 Sample
 • Identify
the
target
group
(the
population
and
the
sample)
 • Identify
why
this
particular
target
group
was
chosen
 • What
is
your
sample
size?
 • Identify
from
where
the
sample
will
be
drawn
and
why?
[Location]
 • Identify
and
explain
the
characteristics
of
the
sample
(size
–
age
–
gender
‐……..)

 Sampling
technique
 • Identify
the
sampling
technique
used
(e.g.
probability
or
non‐probability)
 • Identify
the
sampling
technique
used
in
particular
(cluster,
snowball
…etc.)
 • Provide
justification
for
your
choice
of
sampling
technique
 
 4‐ Procedures:
 • Identify
the
data
collection
procedures
with
details
 • Provide
the
description
and
steps
to
be
followed
 • Include
a
time
plan
and
structure
(It
should
include
a
time
frame,
explaining
how
long
the
research
 should
take
and
the
time
will
be
utilized.
 
 5‐ Limitations
of
the
methodology
used:
 It
should
be
ranging
from
few
lines
to
one
page.
You
need
to
identify
the
specific
limitations
relevant
to
your
 used
methodology
 
Examples
of
limitations:
 • Not
generalizable
 • The
sample
is
not
representative
as
you
went
for
your
survey
on
a
day
in
which
most
people
are
off.
 • The
data
you
need
isn’t
accessible
(maybe
confidential).
 • The
data
you
have
is
biased
(as
maybe
you
only
got
it
from
1
source,
like
the
government).
 
 6‐ Attach
the
questionnaire
 A
sample
of
the
questionnaire
that
will
actually
be
distributed
should
be
included.
 The
use
of
a
variety
of
scales
and
questions
is
encouraged
to
avoid
various
types
of
response
bias
 
 
 INTERVIEWS
/
FOCUS
GROUPS
 1‐ Method
and
Description:
 • Quantitative:
surveys,
experiments….etc
&
why?
(with
citation)
 • Qualitative:
Case
studies,
interviews,
observations…..etc
&
why?
(with
citation)

 
 2‐ Instrument:

 • What
are
the
measurable
variables?
Provide
support
from
the
literature
(ONLY
in
case
of
 explanatory
casual
research
or
descriptive
correlation
research)
 • In
case
there
are
no
variables,
provide
the
definition
from
the
literature
that
you
will
use
for
the
 main
concepts.
Example:
you
have
many
definitions
for
poverty
in
the
literature,
but
what
will
be
 the
definition
you
will
use
for
your
methodology?
 • Description
of
the
interview
(overview
on
administrative,
target,
and
classification
questions,
 question
types
and
scaling
technique;
structures
or
unstructured
questions)
 • On
what
basis
the
questions
were
developed?
Use
guidance
from
the
literature.

 
 3‐ Sampling:
 Sample
 • Identify
the
target
group
(the
population
and
the
sample)
 • Identify
why
this
particular
target
group
was
chosen
 • What
is
your
sample
size?
 • Identify
from
where
the
sample
will
be
drawn
and
why?
[Location]
 • Identify
and
explain
the
characteristics
of
the
sample
(size
–
age
–
gender
‐……..)

 Sampling
technique
 • Identify
the
sampling
technique
used
(e.g.
probability
or
non‐probability)
 • Identify
the
sampling
technique
used
in
particular
(cluster,
snowball
…etc.)
 • Provide
justification
for
your
choice
of
sampling
technique
 
 4‐ Procedures:
 • Identify
the
data
collection
procedures
with
details
 • Provide
the
description
and
steps
to
be
followed
 • Include
a
time
plan
and
structure
(It
should
include
a
time
frame,
explaining
how
long
the
research
 should
take
and
the
time
will
be
utilized.
 
 5‐ Limitations
of
the
methodology
used:
 It
should
be
ranging
from
few
lines
to
one
page.
You
need
to
identify
the
specific
limitations
relevant
to
your
 used
methodology
 
Examples
of
limitations:
 • Not
generalizable
 • The
sample
is
not
representative
as
you
went
for
your
survey
on
a
day
in
which
most
people
are
off.
 • The
data
you
need
isn’t
accessible
(maybe
confidential).
 • The
data
you
have
is
biased
(as
maybe
you
only
got
it
from
1
source,
like
the
government).
 
 6‐ Attach
the
interview
question
 Whether
structured
or
semi‐structure
a
list
of
the
interview
questions
should
be
attached.

 An
unstructured
approach
is
not
acceptable
 
 
 Experiments
 1‐ Method
and
Description:
 • Quantitative:
surveys,
experiments….etc
&
why?
(with
citation)
 • Qualitative:
Case
studies,
interviews,
observations…..etc
&
why?
(with
citation)

 
 2‐ Experimental
Design:

 • What
are
the
measurable
variables?
Provide
support
from
the
literature
(ONLY
in
case
of
 explanatory
casual
research
or
descriptive
correlation
research)
 • Specify
treatment
levels
of
the
independent
variable.
 • Specify
and
describe
the
control
group.
 • Choose
how
you
will
conduct
the
experiment
(using
surveys,
observations,
pen
and
pencil
tests,
 interviews…etc).

 • If
you
are
using
surveys,
interviews,
focus
group,
or
observations,
use
the
required
information
as
 per
each
instrument.
 
 3‐ Sampling:
 Sample
 • Identify
the
target
group
(the
population
and
the
sample)
 • Identify
why
this
particular
target
group
was
chosen
 • What
is
your
sample
size?
 • Identify
from
where
the
sample
will
be
drawn
and
why?
[Location]
 • Identify
and
explain
the
characteristics
of
the
sample
(size
–
age
–
gender
‐……..)

 Sampling
technique
 • Identify
the
sampling
technique
used
(e.g.
probability
or
non‐probability)
 • Identify
the
sampling
technique
used
in
particular
(cluster,
snowball
…etc.)
 • Provide
justification
for
your
choice
of
sampling
technique
 
 4‐ Procedures:
 • Identify
the
data
collection
procedures
with
details
 • Provide
the
description
and
steps
to
be
followed
 • Include
a
time
plan
and
structure
(It
should
include
a
time
frame,
explaining
how
long
the
research
 should
take
and
the
time
will
be
utilized.
 
 5‐ Limitations
of
the
methodology
used:
 It
should
be
ranging
from
few
lines
to
one
page.
You
need
to
identify
the
specific
limitations
relevant
to
your
 used
methodology
 
Examples
of
limitations:
 • Not
generalizable
 • The
sample
is
not
representative
as
you
went
for
your
survey
on
a
day
in
which
most
people
are
off.
 • The
data
you
need
isn’t
accessible
(maybe
confidential).
 • The
data
you
have
is
biased
(as
maybe
you
only
got
it
from
1
source,
like
the
government).
 
 6‐ Attach

 Any
surveys,
interviews…etc
used
in
the
experiment.
 
 
 OBSERVATIONS

 Should
be
combined
with
another
method
–
surveys
or
interviews/focus
groups
or
experiments
 1‐ Method
and
Description:
 • Quantitative:
surveys,
experiments….etc
&
why?
(with
citation)
 • Qualitative:
Case
studies,
interviews,
observations…..etc
&
why?
(with
citation)

 
 2‐ Instrument:

 • What
are
the
measurable
variables?
Provide
support
from
the
literature
(ONLY
in
case
of
 explanatory
casual
research
or
descriptive
correlation
research)
 • In
case
there
are
no
variables,
provide
the
definition
from
the
literature
that
you
will
use
for
the
 main
concepts.
Example:
you
have
many
definitions
for
poverty
in
the
literature,
but
what
will
be
 the
definition
you
will
use
for
your
methodology?
 • What
exactly
will
be
observed?
And
why?

 • State
what
you
are
observing
is
Behavioral
or
Non‐Behavioral

 
 3‐ Sampling:
 Sample
 • Identify
the
target
group
(the
population
and
the
sample)
 • Identify
why
this
particular
target
group
was
chosen
 • What
is
your
sample
size?
 • Identify
from
where
the
sample
will
be
drawn
and
why?
[Location]
 • Identify
and
explain
the
characteristics
of
the
sample
(size
–
age
–
gender
‐……..)

 Sampling
technique
 • Identify
the
sampling
technique
used
(e.g.
probability
or
non‐probability)
 • Identify
the
sampling
technique
used
in
particular
(cluster,
snowball
…etc.)
 • Provide
justification
for
your
choice
of
sampling
technique
 
 4‐ Procedures:
 • Identify
the
data
collection
procedures
with
details
 • Provide
the
description
and
steps
to
be
followed
 • Include
a
time
plan
and
structure
(It
should
include
a
time
frame,
explaining
how
long
the
research
 should
take
and
the
time
will
be
utilized.
 
 5‐ Limitations
of
the
methodology
used:
 It
should
be
ranging
from
few
lines
to
one
page.
You
need
to
identify
the
specific
limitations
relevant
to
your
 used
methodology
 
Examples
of
limitations:
 • Not
generalizable
 • The
sample
is
not
representative
as
you
went
for
your
survey
on
a
day
in
which
most
people
are
off.
 • The
data
you
need
isn’t
accessible
(maybe
confidential).
 • The
data
you
have
is
biased
(as
maybe
you
only
got
it
from
1
source,
like
the
government).
 
 6‐ Attachment
of
survey/interview
questions
depending
on
the
choice
of
the
complementary
method
to
the
 observations
 
 
 
 CASE
STUDIES
(about
one
company/companies)

 Should
be
combined
with
another
method
–
surveys
or
interviews/focus
groups
or
experiments
 1‐ Method
and
Description:
 • Quantitative:
surveys,
experiments….etc
&
why?
(with
citation)
 • Qualitative:
Case
studies,
interviews,
observations…..etc
&
why?
(with
citation)

 
 2‐ Background
about
the
Case

 • Provide
information
about
the
company
(with
citations)
 • Justify
the
choice
of
the
company
as
study
material
(with
citations)
 
 3‐ Sampling:
according
to
the
combined
survey,
interview/focus
group
or
experiments
 
 4‐ Procedures:
according
to
the
combined
survey,
interview/focus
group
or
experiments
 
 5‐ Limitations
of
the
methodology
used:
 It
should
be
ranging
from
few
lines
to
one
page.
You
need
to
identify
the
specific
limitations
relevant
to
your
 used
methodology
 
Examples
of
limitations:
 • Not
generalizable
 • The
sample
is
not
representative
as
you
went
for
your
survey
on
a
day
in
which
most
people
are
off.
 • The
data
you
need
isn’t
accessible
(maybe
confidential).
 • The
data
you
have
is
biased
(as
maybe
you
only
got
it
from
1
source,
like
the
government).
 
 6‐ Attachment
of
survey/interview
questions
depending
on
the
choice
of
the
complementary
method
to
the
 case
study
 
 
 
 
 CASE
STUDIES
(about
a
country)

 1‐ Method
and
Description:
 • Quantitative:
surveys,
experiments….etc
&
why?
(with
citation)
 • Qualitative:
Case
studies,
interviews,
observations…..etc
&
why?
(with
citation)

 
 2‐ Background
about
the
case
 • Provide
information
about
the
country
(with
citations).
Use
multiple
sources.
 • Justify
the
choice
of
the
country
as
study
material
(with
citations)
 • What
will
be
the
source
of
information
for
the
case
study
development?
e.g.
CAPMAS
 • What
records
will
be
checked
and
what
data
will
be
gathered?
e.g.
income
level,
education
level.
 • Describe
the
time
frame
of
data
and
why.
Ex:
from
1990
to
2000.

 
 3‐ Procedures:
 • Identify
the
data
collection
procedures
withdetails
 • Provide
the
description
and
steps
to
be
followed
 • Include
a
time
plan
and
structure
(It
should
include
a
time
frame,
explaining
how
long
the
research
 should
take
and
the
time
will
be
utilized.
 
 4‐ Limitations
of
the
methodology
used:
 It
should
be
ranging
from
few
lines
to
one
page.
You
need
to
identify
the
specific
limitations
relevant
to
your
 used
methodology
 
Examples
of
limitations:
 • Not
generalizable
 • The
sample
is
not
representative
as
you
went
for
your
survey
on
a
day
in
which
most
people
are
off.
 • The
data
you
need
isn’t
accessible
(maybe
confidential).
 • The
data
you
have
is
biased
(as
maybe
you
only
got
it
from
1
source,
like
the
government).
 
 5‐ No
attachment
required

 
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