17. Emerging Disease

17. Emerging Disease - Emerging Wildlife W ildlife Diseases...

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merging Emerging ildlife Diseases Wildlife Diseases as hreats to Threats to onservation Conservation Stacie J. Robinson – UW Wildlife Ecology
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Outline ¾ Basics of disease biology ¾ Factors in diseases emergence ¾ Impacts of disease ase study example ¾ Case study example
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What is Wildlife Disease ? ¾ What is Disease? ny impairment that interferes with or modifies the Any impairment that interferes with or modifies the performance of normal functions, including responses to environmental factors such as nutrition, toxicants, and climate; infectious agents, inherited or congenital defects, or combinations of these factors (Wobeser 2006) ¾ How is it transmitted? ¾ How do we quantify infection? ¾ What affects disease ecology?
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Types of Disease – Infectious Disease Agents Familiar Examples Viruses Rabies virus Bacteria Mycobacterium spp. Fungi Chytrid fungus Protozoa Malaria - plasmodium Metazoa -Ectoparasites Fleas, ticks -Endoparasites Nematodes, flukes
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ypes of Disease – Types of Disease Non-Infectious Disease Agents Familiar Examples Genetic disorders Inbreeding depression, mutations Metabolic alterations Diabetes utritional deficiencies Malnutrition, vitamin eficiency Nutritional deficiencies deficiency Physical agents Heat, cold, trauma Chemicals -Naturally occurring chemicals Cyanobacterial toxins -Human-distributed chemicals Lead, selenium -Human-synthesized chemicals Herbicides, insecticides
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Modes of Disease Transmission Horizontal V e r t i c a l
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Modes of Disease Transmission Horizontal Direct Indirect - Intermediate host - Vector - kin- - kin - ir- orne Close Contact Environmental Skin to skin - Aerosol / droplet - Secretions / excretions - Sexual activity - Contacting carcasses Air borne - Water - Fomites
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Quantifying Occurrence ¾ Individual Measures ± Parasite load # parasites / host ± Case – fatality rates # deaths / # infected ¾ Population Measures ± Incidence Incident cases # new cases / # in pop over specified time period revalence Prevalence ± Prevalence # existing cases / # in pop Mortality / Recovery
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Ecology of Disease HOST The Epidemiological pg Triangle PATHOGEN ENVIRONMENT
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Host Factors ¾ Biology ± Age ± Sex enetics ± Genetics ± Social status ± Breeding status mune Status ¾ Immune Status ± Susceptibility ± Immunity ondition ¾ Condition ± Nutrition ± Stress ¾ Behavior ± Contacts ± Movements
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athogen ector Pathogen Vector Factors Factors ¾ Infectivity ± Ability to enter host ¾ Life Cycle ± Host requirements ¾ Life Cycle ± Host requirements ± Reproductive rates ¾ Pathogenicity ortality / morbidity ± Reproductive rates ± Mortality / morbidity ¾ Survival ± the environment ¾ Survival ± the environment In the environment In the environment
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17. Emerging Disease - Emerging Wildlife W ildlife Diseases...

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