Diplomatic Culture or Cultural Diplomacy: The role for culture in international negotiation? By Aman Garcha “Culture is what remains, when one has forgotten everything.” - Edouard Herriot. The instruments of diplomacy and the process of negotiation are perhaps more important than ever, especially, in an era where global warfare is considered by many states to be less accepted as a means of settling conflict. It goes without saying that culture often has an impact on negotiation, as do countless other variables. The question then becomes what the distinctive effect of culture on negotiation may be, both in creating unexpected opportunities for dispute settlement and imposing obstacles to agreement. By understanding the affects of culture on the process of negotiation, we may be able to better understand the negotiation process itself. This essay will, therefore, present a number of variables to assess the various effects that cultural differences can have on negotiation. The US model of negotiation will be used as the main comparative model to various other national models. This approach will call upon numerous models of national negotiation behaviour and hopefully make it apparent to the reader the various cultural differences in the negotiation process. Moreover, specific variables will be touched upon in the clash between culture and negotiation. On the other side of the spectrum it can be argued that the presence of global elites, living cosmopolitan lifestyles and sharing a common basis of expertise and language override their varied backgrounds. What will be argued is that, although professional ties and the presence of a ‘diplomatic culture’ can ease negotiation they cannot eliminate cross cultural dissonances grounded in profoundly contrasting views of the world, modes of communication and styles of negotiation. Ultimately ‘diplomatic culture’ is not a sufficient replacement for cultural diplomacy. However, before engaging in a full discussion on this topic, it is imperative to define culture and negotiation. Culture and NegotiationCulture is a quality not of individuals, but of the society of which individuals are a part of. “Culture is acquired through the acculturation or socialization by individuals from their respective societies” (Cohen, 11). Therefore, each culture is a unique complex of attributes encompassing every area of social life. Culture specifies “what behaviors are desirable or proscribed for members of the culture (norms), for individuals in the social structure (roles), as well as the important goals and principles in one’s life (values)” (Carnevale et al, 160). Culture also specifies
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