ph_ch015

ph_ch015 - 1 Aqueous Equilibria Acids and Bases Aqueous...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Chapter 15 Chapter 15 Chapter 15 Ramon Lopez de la Vega Chapter 15 Ramon Lopez de la Vega Acid–Base Concepts 01 Acid–Base Concepts 01 We generally know that HCl is an acid and that NaOH is a base. What makes something an acid or a base? Three theories Arrhenius Bronsted Lowry Lewis 2 Acid–Base Concepts - Arrhenius Acid–Base Concepts - Arrhenius Arrhenius Acid: A substance which dissociates to form hydrogen ions (H + ) in solution (usually aqueous). HA( aq ) H + ( aq ) + A – ( aq ) Arrhenius Base: A substance that dissociates in, or reacts with water to form hydroxide ions (OH – ). MOH( aq ) M + ( aq ) + OH – ( aq ) Acid–Base Concepts - Arrhenius Acid–Base Concepts - Arrhenius Acid/Base neutralization reactions are when an acid and a base react to form water and a salt. HA(aq) + MOH H 2 O (l) + MA (aq) acid base water salt 3 Acid–Base Concepts- Bronsted Lowry Acid–Base Concepts- Bronsted Lowry • Brønsted–Lowry Acid: Substance that can donate H + • Brønsted–Lowry Base: Substance that can accept H + • Chemical species whose formulas differ only by one proton are said to be conjugate acid–base pairs . Ionization of weak acids and bases Bronsted Lowry Ionization of weak acids and bases Bronsted Lowry HA is an acid because it donates a proton to the base water. water is a base because it has accepted a proton from the acid HA Since we have an equilibrium arrow, the reaction goes in both directions 4 Ionization of weak acids and bases Ionization of weak acids and bases We can think of this reaction from the opposite direction. H 3 O + is an acid because it donates a proton to the base A- A- is a base because it has accepted the proton from H 3 O + Acid–Base Concepts- Bronsted Lowry Acid–Base Concepts- Bronsted Lowry • Chemical species whose formulas differ only by one proton are said to be conjugate acid–base pairs . HO 2 C 2 H 3 / O 2 C 2 H 3- HF / F- H 2 O/OH- Several compounds that before were not considered acid or base now are. H 2 O/OH H 2 SO 4 / HSO 3- Do some practice ones For example water may now be thought of as an acid or a base, depending on whether it accepted or donated a proton (H + ) 5 Acid–Base Concepts – Bronsted Lowry Acid–Base Concepts – Bronsted Lowry Notice that the stronger the acid, the weaker the The stronger the base, the weaker the conjugate acid conjugate base Acid–Base Concepts 07 Acid–Base Concepts 07 • Write balanced equations for the dissociation of each of the following Brønsted–Lowry acids in water. (a) H 2 SO 4 (b) HSO 4 – (c) H 3 O + 6 pH – A Measure of Acidity 01 pH – A Measure of Acidity 01 • The pH of a solution is the negative logarithm of the The pH of a solution is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration (in mol/L) ....
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This note was uploaded on 12/17/2011 for the course CHM 1046 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at FIU.

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ph_ch015 - 1 Aqueous Equilibria Acids and Bases Aqueous...

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