ph_ch015

ph_ch015 - 1 Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Aqueous...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Chapter 15 Chapter 15 Chapter 15 Ramon Lopez de la Vega Chapter 15 Ramon Lopez de la Vega AcidBase Concepts 01 AcidBase Concepts 01 We generally know that HCl is an acid and that NaOH is a base. What makes something an acid or a base? Three theories Arrhenius Bronsted Lowry Lewis 2 AcidBase Concepts - Arrhenius AcidBase Concepts - Arrhenius Arrhenius Acid: A substance which dissociates to form hydrogen ions (H + ) in solution (usually aqueous). HA( aq ) H + ( aq ) + A ( aq ) Arrhenius Base: A substance that dissociates in, or reacts with water to form hydroxide ions (OH ). MOH( aq ) M + ( aq ) + OH ( aq ) AcidBase Concepts - Arrhenius AcidBase Concepts - Arrhenius Acid/Base neutralization reactions are when an acid and a base react to form water and a salt. HA(aq) + MOH H 2 O (l) + MA (aq) acid base water salt 3 AcidBase Concepts- Bronsted Lowry AcidBase Concepts- Bronsted Lowry BrnstedLowry Acid: Substance that can donate H + BrnstedLowry Base: Substance that can accept H + Chemical species whose formulas differ only by one proton are said to be conjugate acidbase pairs . Ionization of weak acids and bases Bronsted Lowry Ionization of weak acids and bases Bronsted Lowry HA is an acid because it donates a proton to the base water. water is a base because it has accepted a proton from the acid HA Since we have an equilibrium arrow, the reaction goes in both directions 4 Ionization of weak acids and bases Ionization of weak acids and bases We can think of this reaction from the opposite direction. H 3 O + is an acid because it donates a proton to the base A- A- is a base because it has accepted the proton from H 3 O + AcidBase Concepts- Bronsted Lowry AcidBase Concepts- Bronsted Lowry Chemical species whose formulas differ only by one proton are said to be conjugate acidbase pairs . HO 2 C 2 H 3 / O 2 C 2 H 3- HF / F- H 2 O/OH- Several compounds that before were not considered acid or base now are. H 2 O/OH H 2 SO 4 / HSO 3- Do some practice ones For example water may now be thought of as an acid or a base, depending on whether it accepted or donated a proton (H + ) 5 AcidBase Concepts Bronsted Lowry AcidBase Concepts Bronsted Lowry Notice that the stronger the acid, the weaker the The stronger the base, the weaker the conjugate acid conjugate base AcidBase Concepts 07 AcidBase Concepts 07 Write balanced equations for the dissociation of each of the following BrnstedLowry acids in water. (a) H 2 SO 4 (b) HSO 4 (c) H 3 O + 6 pH A Measure of Acidity 01 pH A Measure of Acidity 01 The pH of a solution is the negative logarithm of the The pH of a solution is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration (in mol/L) ....
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ph_ch015 - 1 Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Aqueous...

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