Regional_Municipality_of_Waterloo.__1986 - JSES &7...

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Unformatted text preview: JSES &7 M>mMk # The Regional Municipality of Waterloo Factors to Consider in the Preparation of the Master Plan for Homer Watson Park, City of Kitchener Prepared by Katherine Ounster Regional Municipality of Waterloo August, 1986 page ii CONTENTS Background 1 PART 1 General Points 1 PART 2 Details 3 Literature Sources Appendix A: 7 Butterflies ESPA #31 found in Homer Watson Park Details from Technical Appendix 8 11 Details from City of Kitchener Master Plan 14 Details regarding composting toilets 18 Stanley Park 23 (Vancouver) brochure FIGURES Figure 1 Homer Watson Park 3a page 1 BACKGROUND. A meeting was held on August 18th. 1986 at the City of Kitchener, to discuss the prepa ration of ESPA (Environmentally Sensitive Policy Areas) management plans. It was agreed by those present (K.Dunster, Regional Municipality of Waterloo; Scott Konkle and Bill Sleeth, Kitchener Parks and Recreation), that a management plan should follow from a master plan, rather than the other way round. Therefore, their immediate need is for spe cific details on the ecology and environmental factors affecting Homer Watson Park (ESPA # 31). These details will then assist the City in the preparation of a master plan. A lack of research time in the summer of 1986, has precluded gathering much of this information. This report highlights factors for consideration in the master planning pro cess. The report consists of two parts. Part 1 suggests general points about the park which should be considered in the master planning process. Part 2 discusses Homer Watson Park in more detail and delineates 5 areas for management, shown in Figure 1. This report does not cover alt the eventualities that might arise during the master planning process. Further information, in the appendix, is included to supplement this report. PART 1. GENERAL POINTS. 1 The work of Donaldson and Mutrie (1970) provides general biophysical information about the park. This report relied heavily on previous work by others and should be con sidered only for historical information. Prior to masterplanning, a detailed study should be undertaken to update the biophy sical data base, preferably in the spring season. In the event that EEAC requires an EIS, the biophysical study would form part of this. Specific information is required on the location of Criterion A plants (see Appendix A) so that any development plans can be sit ed to avoid these sensitive species. These plants should be plotted on a large-scale map of the park to assist the planning process. Designation of the park for the six butterflies listed in the ESPA Technical Appendix (see Appendix A) is based on Lamb (1967). During field trips to the park in August 1986, the author positively identified two species, which are listed in Lamb (1967), as being "extremely rare" and "not common", but they are not listed in the technical appendix under Criterion A for the park. The Inornate Ringlet is given an "extremely rare" status by Lamb (1967), who reported that only one specimen was previously taken in the region, in 1945. The Pink-edged Sulphur is listed by Lamb (1967) as being "not common", and was seen at moisture on the bank of the Grand River. Field work should be conducted to confirm the presence of the Criterion A species and any others in the park. Their food and caterpillar host plants should be located and marked to avoid habitat destruction dur ing development. New data is required on the location of bird nesting sites in the park so that they may be plotted on a map to help prevent habitat destruction. This information may be available from the Kitchener-Waterloo Field Naturalists, Dr Paul Eagles, Department of Recreation, University of Waterloo, or from the Royal Ontario Museum Bird Nesting f XJ' \ Records Scheme. ,r A- v page 2 A good example of how biological information (including single plant situations) was plotted on a large scale map, and then used to guide the master planning process, is the work conducted by the Landplan Collaborative Ltd. (Guelph) on Point Pelee National Park. This work also illustrates the level of sensitivity required of park planners when siting recreational development in an environmentally sensitive area. 2 The designation of an urban park as an Environmentally Sensitive Policy Area does not preclude its use for recreation. Many recreational uses can be compatible in an ESPA if they are located on the sites most capable and suitable for the activity. Within Homer Watson park, some areas are more environmentally sensitive than others. A new biophy sical inventory will refine the boundaries of these areas. One approach to master plan ning may be a park zoning system similar to those used by either the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources for its provincial parks, or by Parks Canada in the national parks. Contact : Norm Richards MNR, Park Planning Section, Queen's Park. John Carruthers. Parks Canada Liaison Officer, University of Waterloo. 3 The boundaries of ESPA » 31 extend beyond Homer Watson Park and include the nearby Doon Forest Tract, owned by the Regional Municipality and managed by the Minis try of Natural Resources. Consideration should be given to the relocation of some recre ational activities from Homer Watson to the forest tract, in cooperation with the above agencies. Activities such as cross-country skiing, horseback riding and mountain bicycling may be more suitable in the forest tract where soil drainage is better, reducing compaction and increasing carrying capacity for these types of activities. As recommended in the City of Kitchener Parks and Recreation Master Plan Update, linkages should be provided from the forest tract and Homer watson to the community trail on the abandoned CNR right-of-way, and to the Grand River Trail. Any heavy impact use away from these trails in the park should be discouraged. 4 There may be opportunities within the master planning process to meet several objectives at the same time. Habitat enhancement, such as seeding butterfly nectar plants along the abandoned CNR right-of-way, would assist in the management of the ESPA and would provide an interesting educational interpretation feature. Site rehabilitation prescriptions, such as the bioengineering proposed for the eroding river bank, would also provide an opportunity for educational interpretation. 5 Donaldson and Mutrie (1970) indicate that little regeneration is occurring in parts of the park. A new biological inventory will determine the extent to which regeneration has taken place in the 16 years since their survey. In areas where the forest understorey has been disturbed by development, and regeneration does not appear to be happening, native seedling plantings should be carried out to supplement natural regeneration. The contact listed below has considerable experience in urban park rehabilitation in Southern Ontario. Contact : Bill Granger, Arborist, City of North York. page 3 6 If the master plan calls for the removal of vegetation to allow for development, every effort should be made to preserve trees and to transplant herbaceous plants, woody shrubs and saplings to similar sites in the park that are in need of enhancement. Contact : L. Lamb and R. Dorney of the University of Waterloo and Canadian Wildflower Society. 7 The recommendations of the City of Kitchener : Parks and Recreation Master Plan Update regarding the natural environment, the Grand River Valley and general draft recommendations for Open Space and the Environment should be considered in the master planning process (See Appendix A). 8 According to the City of Kitchener's Lands and Facilities Inventory Homer Watson Park has been designated as a natural park. "Natural parks are areas preserved in their natural state and are avilable for use by all residents". Facility development should be kept to a minimum to ensure that the park will retain this designation, and ESPA designa tion. 9 Given the high water table and imperfect drainage in areas of the park, alternatives to pit toilets or septic systems should be considered. Composting toilets have been suc cessfully used in a number of American park systems and do not cause degradation of the environment (See Appendix A). PART 2. DETAILS Area 1 This area (see figure 1) is to the north of Wabanaki Drive. Schneider Creek flows through the site and the main vegetation communities are wetland swamp, old field and shrub willow thickets. This area has undergone considerable disturbance in the past due to the CNR track that ran through here. The community trail, located on the abandoned CNR right-of-way has not been developed to any great extent in terms of surface hardening. If surface hardening is proposed in the master plan, porous pavement or soil should be considered to assist surface drainage. Development in the wetland should be avoided. The old field areas contain a variety a wide variety of plants attractive to butterflies and the close proximity of these areas to Schneider Creek, suggests the possibility of butterfly habitat protection and enhancement. Monarchs were particularly active in these areas during August 1986. An interpretive unit could be programmed here to take advantage of the educational opportunity available. A detailed inventory will reveal many other natural features suitable for interpretation, such as the mulberry tree along the community trail. Area 2 • • • • BOUNDARY AREA BOUNDARY COMMUNITY TRAIL ROAD PARK KEY page 4 This area (see figure 1) contains mostly climax upland vegetation communities, with the exception of the swamp complex originating by the spring. The topography is varied with a number of hummocks and ravines running through the site, creating a wide variety of microclimates and habitats. Area 2 receives a great deal of use throughout the day by people taking breaks from nearby jobs. Many trails and paths run through the site and the master plan should address the location, relocation and closing of many of these trails. Access should be provided from the adjacent industrial properties into the park on "official" trails, rather than having to prescribe management techniques later to control trampling in the area. Due to the age and difficulty in replacing trees in this area with similar sized speci mens, trees should not be cut down in Area 2 unless public safety is threatened. Any trees that are cut. should be left to decay, thus providing soil nutrients and micro-habitat. Efforts should be made in the master plan, to route development around trees, to avoid leaving trees isolated, and to avoid soil compaction close to trees. A number of picnic sites have been created by clearing the vegetation along the park road. The master plan should consider the centralisation of picnicing to avoid further damage to the park. Those sites that are cleared should be rehabilitated using native plant materials, preferably native to Area 2. Due to the imperfect drainage around the present park entrance / toilet / horseshoe / picnic area, hard paving of road and parking facilities should be carefully planned for in the master plan. Porous pavement or soil cement should be considered to assist drain age, if paving is necessary. Climax vegetation such as that found in the park represents the greatest ecological investment in terms of the time required to reach climax and time required to replace cli max if lost to development. The age of the trees in Area 2 provides both ecological and cultural features which could be programmed into the master plan. An example of where this has been done, is Stanley Park, in Vancouver (see Appendix A). As discussed in Part 1, plant materials should be transplanted on site to ameliorate development in this area. Passive recreational activities should be encouraged in Area 2, to decrease develop ment and lower the impact on the environment. High impact activities such as cross country skiing, horseback riding and mountain bicycling, should be relocated if possible to Doon Forest Tract, with connections to the community trail and the Grand River Trail. Area 3 This area includes the community trail and Schneider Creek from Wabanaki Drive to Doon Heritage Crossroads. The two major vegetation communities are similar to Area 1, and include a wetland swamp complex and old fields. Sunny, open areas along the community trail, particularly in the area around the foot bridge, provide rich habitat for butterflies. These areas should be considered for habitat protection and enhancement since both would fulfill ecological and educational objec tives. page 5 Development should not occur in the wetlands. Equestrian access should be restrict ed to designated, hardened trails (such as the community trail). Site degradation is occurring along the creek, and in the wetland due to horseriding on undefined paths. Enhancement of the woodland edges should be considered in Area 3. In the area where Manitou Drive industrial sites back onto the park, edge buffer zones should be cre ated. Consideration should be given to the users of the community trail who will be mov ing straight through the park without taking side trips to facilities located in other parts of the park. Picnic, waste disposal and toilet facilities may be required to ensure proper use of the trail in this area. Area 4 This area includes all parts of the park to the east of Wilson Avenue and Mill Park Drive, down to the Grand River bank. The vegetation in this area is diverse, ranging from wet land communities along the river edge, to mature hemlock stands along the top of the bank, and to xeric (dry) tolerant species on the sandy exposed bank. Area 4 is extremely sensitive to human use because of its poor slope stability. It also has high recreational value because of the scenic views it offers from the lookout, and the attraction of getting down to the river edge. Careful planning will be required in this area to meet recreational needs without causing further damage to the slope. A trail system should be defined and hardened through the use of boardwalks, ramps, steps, and platforms which would also encourage users to stay on the trail. The equest rian trail down to the Huron Road ford should be examined, relocated if necessary, and hardened to prevent degradation of the slope. The Parks Canada Liaison office at the University of Waterloo can provide sources of information about horse trail construction, since the national parks have had considerable experience in this type of facility con struction. Slope stabilisation of the eroding riverbank (Maryhill Till Type Section) should be giv en priority. The lockout path along the top of the slope is being undercut and will even tually be lost to ercsion. Runoff from the eroding slope is causing some silt deposition into the Grand River. Assistance from the Ministry of Natural Resources is required to find solutions to keeping sections of the Maryhill Till Type Section exposed, without caus ing further erosion. Bioengineering appears to be the most appropriate solution to stabil ising the slope. Efforts should be made to clear away loose material and expose the entire Type Section so that videos and photographic records can be made prior to stabili sation. If parts of the Type Section can be left exposed, connections might be made to Petrifying Spring to provide several opportunities for geological and hydrological interpre tation in the park. Bioengineering plans for the site are underway and follow the procedures recom mended by the Soil Bioengineering Corporation (Georgia, U.S.A.) and Coates, Harrington and Hoyle Landscape Architects of Toronto. Some consideration shoulo he given to the selection of plant material II hydros«»«i'l ing of grasses and legumes is prescribed, native legumes such as tufted vetch (Vicia cracca) should be considered over non-native clovers, and likewise for grasses. page 6 Container stock to be underplanted in the brush mattresses should consist only of native species. A substitute for rugose rose (Rosa rugosa) might be prickly ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) which is found in the park, thrives on dry sites, assists in keeping peo ple on designated trails, and colonises quickly. If at all possible, the brush mattress should include those poplar and willow species found within the park to prevent nonnative colonisation. A useful document to consult on general site rehabilitation is Parks Canada's Site Rehabilitation Manual. The area undergoing bioengineering may serve as an interesting educational interpre tation unit. The Grand River is being used more and more for long distance canoeing and the park can expect to receive some visitors by canoe (A canoe party was seen visiting the park in August 1986, and had pulled in at the eroding riverbank, which was then used for access up to Wilson Avenue and the Doon Heritage Crossroads). Consideration should be given in the master plan to how and where a canoe pull-in should be provided along the river so that other facilities in the park can be used. An appropriate site may be the Huron Road ford, and signage would be necessary. The proximity of this area to private houses at the northern park boundary and Wilson Avenue can cause problems, as non-native plants have the opportunity to invade the park from thse properties. Periwinkle (Vinca minor) is a particularly pernicious woody ground cover that is creeping into the park along this boundary. Hand removal is recommended at regular intervals to prevent the choking out of native wild flowers. Area 5 This area includes Doon Heritage Crossroads, which has been developed as an historical interpretation center. In areas where the Heritage Crossroads site borders with the natural areas of the park, edge enhancement may be necessary. These boundaries are also vulnerable to the invasion of non-native plants into the park and should be monitored regularly. The master plan should consider the linkages to Doon Heritage Crossroads from the different park areas. The connection of the Doon Forest Tract with the community trail would likely pass Doon Heritage Crossroads, and the master plan should consider ways of encouraging side trips into the Crossroads. page 7 LITERATURE SOURCES. 1. Anon. 1983. Doon Valley Open Space Study Steering Committee Recommendations Re : Doon Valley Open Space and Concept Plan. Final draft. Cambridge. Grand River Conservation Authority. 2. City of Kitchener. 1982. Lands and Facilities Inventory. City of Kitchener, Depart ment of Parks and Recreation. 3. Donaldson, G.R. and D.F.Mutrie. 1970. Ecological Appraisal of Homer Watson Park, Kitchener. Ontario. University of Waterloo. 4. Geography / Planning 200 report. Getz,D., Graham.R., and R.J.Payne. 1984. City of Kitchener: Parks and Recreation Master Plan Update. 5. Granger,W.B. 1984. Reforestation in Urban Parkland. York University. 6. Hilton-Foster Associates Ltd. 1980. Doon Valley Open Space Study and Concept Plan. 7. Major paper. Kitchener. Grand River Conservation Authority and the City of Kitchener. Hutchinson.G.C. 1984. Naturalization of Areas in North York Parks. City of North York. Parks and Recreation Department. 8. Parks Canada. 1980 Site Rehabilitation Manual. Ottawa : Environment Canada. page 8 Appendix A BUTTERFLIES FOUND IN HOMER WATSON PARK. Reference. Lamb.L 1967. A Checklist of Waterloo County Lepidoptera, Papitionoidea, the Butterflies. Kitchener. K-W Field Naturalists. Opler.P.A. and G.O.Krizek. 1984. Butterflies East of the Great Plains. Baltimore : John Hop kins University Press. Feniseca tarquinius Harvester. Status Very rare Range Southern Ontario. Habitat (Lamb 1967). Deciduous or mixed forests, particularly along streams. Life History The Harvester has two generations in a year. Freshly emerged males are occasionally seen at wet spots on roads or along streams. Caterpillar Host Plants The caterpillars are carnivorous. They feed on wooly aphids (Prociphilus, Neoprociphilus, Schizoneura, and Pemphigus), which in turn feed primarily on alders, witch hazel, beech, ash, wild currant and hawthorn. Adult Food Because the Harvester's proboscis is very short, it cannot reach the nectar in flowers. It feeds primarily on aphid honeydew and occasionally animal droppings. Pieris napi Mustard White. Status Restricted range Range Southern Ontario. Habitat (Klots 1986 Lamb 1967). Deciduous woods, bogs and open fields. Usually confined to wooded habitats in the spring. Life History The Mustard White usually has two full generations in a year. Caterpillar Host Plants Toothwort Dentaria diphylla Rock cress Water cress Arabis sp. Nasturtium officinale Mustard Brassica rapa Wintercress Adult Nectar Sources Pieris protodice Barbarea vulgaris Mainly the flowers of their caterpillar hosts. Checkered White. Status Uncommon (Lamb 1967) Range Occasionally strays into Southern Canada. Habitat Open, relatively dry sites such as dry upland pastures, fallow corn fields, railroad tracks and sandy lots. Life History The Checkered White usually has three generations in a year. Caterpillar Host Plants page 9 Wild peppergrass Lepidium densiflorum Shepherd's purse Capsella bursa-pastoris Winter cress Barbarea vulgaris Other cruciferae Adult Nectar Sources Hedge Mustard Sisymbrium officinale Winter Cress Barbarea vulgaris Milkweeds Asclepias sp. Pieris virginiensis \Nest Virginia White. Status Rare Range Southern Ontario (Lamb 1967). Provincially, rare and endangered. Habitat Restricted to moist deciduous or mixed woodland. Most often maple and beech are elements in these forests, but occasionally it has been found in wet woodlands domi nated by box elder. Life History The Western Virginia White has only one generation a year and can be seen between late April and early June. Newly emerged males seek moisture near streams or the damp margins of woodland roads. Caterpillar Host Plants Toothworts Dentaria diphylla Dentaria laciniata Adult Nectar Sources Most often toothworts, but occasionally: White Trillium Trillium grandiflorum Canada Violet Viola canadensis Garlic Mustard Alliaria officinalis Polygonia progne Status Range Habitat Gray Comma. Rare (Lamb 1967) Southern Ontario, restricted. Rich deciduous woodlands. Adults are often found within clearings and along dirt roads. Life History The Gray Comma has two generations in a year, the summer generation appears in June to mid August. The winter form emerges by October and the adults overwinter, laying the eggs for the summer generation in April and May. Freshly emerged adults may be found by moisture in midsummer. Caterpillar Host Plants Wild Gooseberry Adult Food Precis lavinia Status Range Ribes rotundifolium Adults are found often at tree sap flows and seldom visit flowers. Buckeye. Rare (Lamb 1967). Southern Canada. Does not survive the winter. It recolonises by migrating north each year. Habitat Requires open areas with low vegetation and some areas of bare ground. Likely situations are roadsides, dry fields with dirt roads, power line cuts, open pine flatwoods, beach dunes and railroad tracks. Life History Buckeyes usually have two generations a year in the north. page 10 Caterpillar Host Plants Members of the snapdragon, plantain and acanth family. Snapdragon False Foxglove Toadflax English Plantain Ruellia Adult Nectar Sources. Antirrhinum Aureolaria sp. Linaria vulgaris flava Plantago lanceolata Ruellia nodiflora Mainly compositae. C hickory Cichorium intybus Knapweed Centaurea nigra Tickweed Sunflower Bidens aristosa Gumweed Grindelia squarrosa Asters Aster sp. Dogbane Apocynum androsaemifolium Peppermint Mentha arvensis. page NAME: Homer Watson Park MUNICIPALITY: City of Kitchener LOCATION: Lot(s): 11 ————— Concessions): Bechtel's Tract UTM Co-ordinates (Centrold): OWNERSHIP: Public SIZE: 546,000 mE 4,805,000 mN 101.7 ha (251.2 ac.) \ PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGION: Till moraines, spillways SOILS: Gravelly sandy loams and fine sandy loams often well drained GENERAL DESCRIPTION: One of the significant features of this area is a fine, but small, Alleghonian Forest stand of huge hemlocks. Red Maples end Yellow Birch. The area is topographically diverse. The major forest type present is Sugar Maple-Beech. present. Soma vary large trees ara Small sections of spring-fed mixed swamp forest, cedar thicket and field systems occur along an abandoned railway right-of-way and along the Schneider Creek floodplaln. Patches of pine and spruce plantation occur sporadically within the E.S.P.A., the largest of which forms the E.S.P.A.'a eastern boundary. There are some rare butterflies present and large numbers of wintering birds frequent the area. Schneider's Creek flows along the west and southern boundaries of the woods. High, steep wooded bluffs along the Grand River provide vantage points for Impressive views of the river valley. Walking trails and picnic areas are situated in the park. The Grand Valley trail parallels the river through the E.S.P.A. The Ministry of Natural Resources (M.N.R.) Hsts the area as a provinclally JJ9;f|" cant earth sciences landmark (for the presence of the type sect on of Maryhlll till) and also designates the area as a local life science site. The City of Kitchener has designated it as an ecologically significant open apace area. page 12 CRITERIA FULFILLED: Criterion A SCIENTIFIC NAME STATUS/NOTES Slosson's Wood Fern Dryopteris marqinalls x Rare (Campbell £ Britton Hay-scented Fern Spotted Coralroot Prickly Ash Dwarf Ginseng Closed Gentian Oswego Tea Dennstaedtia punctilobula Corallorhiza maculata Xanthoxylum americanum Panax trifolius Infreq. Monarda didyma Infreq. Single-flowered Cancer Orobanche uniflora Rare Root Squawroot Conopholis americana Infreq. Pieris protodice Precis lavinia Uncommon (Lamb 1967) Rare (Lamb 1967) Plants Insects: cristata Gentiana andrewsii 1977) Infreq. CITES (1978) Infreq. Rare to Infreq. Infreq. Rare in Canada (Argus 6 White 1977) (Butterflies) Checkered White Buckeye Harvester Mustard White Fenfsd ca tarquinius Pieris napi West Virginia White Pieris vtrglniensis Gray Comma Polygonia progne Very Rare (Lamb 1967) "restricted range" (Klots 1986) (Lamb 1967) Rare (Lamb 1967) (Rare & Endangered) Rare (Lamb 1967) The^Virginia White, officially protected as a provincially rare and endangered species, has not been sighted in this area for decades. Criterion B The unusual number and nature of the rare plants and butterflies, as well as the excellent hemlock stand, are notable. The wooded bluffs afford spectacular views of autumn colours. Wintering concentrations of Crossbills, Purple Finch and Pine Siskin, particularly attracted to the hemlock and pine, are found here. The Pileated and Black-backed (Three-toed) Woodpeckers also winter here occasionally owing to the large timber. Criterion E The area is quite diverse physiographically, and as ■ result, biologically. page 13 Criterion C The wet areas and springs have hydrological value. One spring is historically significant as part of Waterloo County folklore and is known as "Lover's Spring". Date: December 1981 Revised, February 1986 page CITY OF KITCHENER Section OPEN SPACE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Natural Environment H-4 NATURAL ENVIRONMENT The City's policy of acquiring woodlots for preservation has widespread public support. Our only relevant recommendations concern the ongoing management of woodlots and natural areas. We are recommending that the department adopt a comprehensive ecological management program. This will require the collection and monitoring of basic environmental data, which is a task that the universities could perhaps perform with the City's co-operation. Drainage is a related issue, as woodlots and natural areas will be affected by drainage modifications. As well, drainage works greatly affect greenways/t rails and in several cases will detract from usable neigh bourhood open space. The existing drainage policy should be re-evaluated with regard to ensuring that adequate consideration is given to ecological management and that parkland will not be sterilized needlessly by storm drainage modifications. H-9 14 page OTY OF KITCHENER Section OPEN SPACE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Grand River Valley H-5 GRAND RIVER VALLEY There is a need to develop a comprehensive recreational and conservation plan for the river valley. (A study completed in 1981 was confined to the Doon area, and while it provided good direction for examining'the river corridor it does not address all of the relevant issues.) Close co-operation between the City, Region, Cambridge, adjacent townships, and the MNR and GRCA will be required for the study. Other regions and cities have placed high priority on river corridors (e.g., OttawaCarl et on; Mississauga; Nepean; Oakville) and as the regional population grows, the absence of a plan for the 'river valley' could become critical. One objective will be to develop linkages with the growing trail system of the City. Another should be to provide more water-based recreation, as throughout Waterloo Region there is a major lack of water-based recreation opportunities and access to water resources. H-10 15 page CITY OF KITCHENER Section OPEN SPACE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Draft Recommendations H-10 DRAFT RECOMMENDATIONS 10-1 The inner City neighbourhoods are deficient in local open space that can be used for active recreation. Priority should be given to new acquisitions in these neighbourhoods, although detailed evaluation.of needs and opportunities should occur in secondary and neighbourhood plans. In the inner City, the department should assess the potential for providing a home playing field for the two central high schools. The Doon neigh bourhood has also been found to be deficient in neighbourhood open space. 10-2 Give high priority to further development of the trail system, as this facility has a great deal of public support. The 1972 Linked Open Spaces Study should be reviewed in detail to take into account recent changes in development and parks. There is also a need to conduct user surveys to determine the use and perceptions of trails. 10-3 Because of the possibility that school sites might not ultimately be required for schools, new suburban parks should be planned with greater flexibility. This could mean setting aside more land which could be used as parkland if the school site is eventually sold. Existing vacant school/ parkland should also be examined to determine if the park component can be expanded in case the school portion is later sold. The need for extra parkland should be determined on a neighbourhood basis, having regard to population characteristics and other parkland or open space opportunities nearby. 10-4 Where vacant school sites become redundant and are to be sold, the City should evaluate the neighbourhood needs and opportunities to determine if the site should be purchased for parkland. A similar neighbourhood evaluation is required when a school is closed. Because of the general need for more open space and community facilities in the inner City, the department should give priority to examining redundant schools for possible demonstration projects with other agencies in the public and private sector. 10-5 Wherever possible, if local need exists, arrangements should be made with school boards to make use of vacant school sites on an interim basis. 10-6 The department should work with the Region, conservation organizations and the Universities to develop a general ecological management policy for its woodlots, natural areas and drainage courses. H-32 16 page 10-7 The existing drainage policy should be reviewed to ensure that adequate consideration is given to ecological management and to ensure that drainage improvements do not sterilize open space. 10-8 The City, Region, Grand River Conservation Authority and adjacent municipalities should work together to produce a comprehensive recreation and conservation plan for the Grand River corridor. 10-9 Passive areas should be provided in all parks. This will require a reexamination of design criteria to include landscaping and benches, pathways and screening. In particular, the needs of the very young, the elderly and persons with disabilities should be satisfied. Model park plans would be a useful took in working with resident and user groups to design open spaces, and their preparation is recommended. 10-10 The process of park planning and design should include residents as early as possible and in all stages, including maintenance. Resident groups should be encouraged to 'adopt1 parks and trails for purposes of making regular improvements, some maintenance, monitoring use, and staging events or programs in them. This could be done at the sub-neighbourhood level. 10-11 A City beautification policy and guidelines should be formulated to deal with the issues of tree planting, public art, streetscaping and park land scaping. 10-12 Downtown revitalization could be assisted through the adoption of a specific beautification policy, the provision of more open spaces as recommended in the downtown study, and by catering to the needs of those who prefer a quiet, relaxing downtown experience. The department should also encourage and assist more events in the core, as part of its community development role. 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Clivus Multrum in Swedish means "inclining compost room," and this natural principle The standard toilet is a handmakes the Multrum™ era fred hardwood pedestal with plastic seal and cover the best waste treat This hardwooa seat and cover are optional ment system available today Not only does Clivus Multrum treat toilet wastes which would normally be flushed into a sewer or septic system, but it also composts kitchen and other wastes. Anything organic, from grass .clippings to laundry lint to paper towels used in the kitchen, becomes a rich fertile soil in the Clivus Multrum. Organic materials are introduced to the Multrum's impervious composting chamber through one or more toilet chutes and a convenient 19 ROTARY VENTILATOR kitchen chute. The wastes mix naturally in the compost ing chamber and slowly decompose in the oxygenrich environ ment. The principal by products of this decomposition —water vapor and carbon dioxide—are drawn through COMPOSTING TANK Simplicity in waste treatment wilhou pollution ofair, water or land. the Multrum's ventilation system to the outside air. The Clivus Multrum is therefore com pletely odorless. As these wastes decompose, their volume is reduced by more than 90/o. The final product is fertile, organic compostjust like normal garden soil, It is safe to handle, odorless and easily removeH The kitchen waste inlet is particularly convenient. An optional counter version includes butcher block and stainless steel bowl. page Clivus Multrum is the best choice in waste treatment systems. It does not require hook-ups to plumbing or sewer systems, and can reduce septic tank and leach field requirements. In situations of poor soils, high groundwater or nearby surface water, Clivus Multrum can cost far less than a traditional septic tank and leach field. It uses no water and practically no energy. Operation and maintenance costs are negligible. A small electric fan is the only electrical or mechanical part. Each component is carefully engineered and con structed to heavy specifications to provide dependable, trouble-free operation. Clivus Multrum is the only reliable system for both year-round and seasonal homes. Other systems are scaled for vacation or seasonal use, and require more energy, maintenance and frequent removal of waste. Clivus Multrum is a solid investment in your future and the future of your environment. 20 channels control air flow around and through the or ganic material. As this material decomposes, it moves in a slow, glacier-like manner along the sloping bottom, thus insuring thorough, safe decomposition. The garbage waste inlet is usually installed in the kitchen, convenient to counters and food preparation. It can be set into a wall or counter, and its modern appear ance fits with any kitchen decor. The vent pipe from the composting chamber extends vertically through the roof. A small exhaust fan creates the constant draft which insures aerobic decomposition and Clivus Multrum's odorless operation. This can be powered by solar cells. WHAT GOES IN The Clivus Multrum composts anything organic: human wastes, toilet paper, kleenex, sanitary napkins and other bathroom wastes. Food scraps, bones, eggshells, cook ing liquids, and grease and fat from the kitchen. Dust pan and vacuum cleaner refuse, paper towels, shredded iK'WS|).'i|x-rs,«'vni kill y litter. Inorganic materials such as glass, metals and plastics [|nU II V,MKKS The key to the Clivus Multrum is aerobic decomposition, should not be put into the Clivus Multrum because they that is, decomposition in the presence of air and oxygen. will not decompose. However, they will not damage the system, and can be easily retrieved. Paints, chemicals In the Clivus Multrum, a constant flow of air permeates and other toxic materials will kill the beneficial organ the organic material through a patented ventilation sys isms in the compost and may make it unsuitable for use tem, and more than 90% of the waste volume is decom posed and evaporated. Water vapor and carbon dioxide as a soil enrichment. are drawn off through the vent pipe. The presence of air also provides the oxygen which allows bacteria and other beneficial organisms to con vert the organic material to safe, usable compost.The process is similar to that of a garden compost pile. As these organisms decompose the organic material, heat is created. This heat is preserved inside the con tainer by built-in insulation, thus helping the process of decomposition to continue even in cold weather. The system is adaptable to all climatic conditions. In other words, Clivus Multrum is a process using nature's own method of waste disposal. lOMI'uNLNTS The key elements of the Clivus Multrum system are: toilet, kitchen waste inlet, chutes, composting chamber, vent pipe and a small fan. The toilet comes in attractive styles to complement any bathroom. The largest component of the Clivus Multrum is the impervious, fiberglass compost tank. This carefully engi neered and patented unit is normally located directly beneath tfte ttVitet and kitchen waste inlets, and can be sr. 4fnv&raus sizes whfc&acco/mmodate from one ■ ,^°P?es&ft<«up&Sr*»und basis. The composting ioers inclined bottom, internal b '" Materials rich in cellulose—food wastes, leaves, sawdust, paper products, etc.—aid the decomposition process by lightening the compost pile and promoting air penetration. They also supply the carbon necessary for organisms in the compost to convert nitrogen and other nutrients to stable forms and to develop heat for evaporation. WHAT COMES OUT The final, fully composted material from the Clivus Multrum slowly passes under the lower baffle into the odor-free storage area where it can be easily removed through a large hatch. The composting chamber itself is never emptied. The end product—compost—is rich in plant nutrients and organic matter, with a bacterial composition very similar to loam. It is an excellent addition to garden or plant soils. The frequency of removal and the amount of material will depend upon the household use of the system. In a normal household, it will take 4-5 years before compost reaches the storage area, which is large enough to store several years' accumulation of compost for an average family before any removal is necessary. Once the system reaches full operation, the Clivus Multrum will deliver about 1 Vi cubic feet of compost per person per year. page ONE STORY HOME WO TOILETS WITH LARGE COMPOSTING TANK PLUS ONE MIDSECTION. 21 WCATION HOME TWO STORY HOME ONE TOtLET WTTH SMALL COMPOSTING TANK TWO TOILETS WITH LARGE COMPOSTING TANK ADJACENT KITCHEN) VENT- TOILET #1 TOILET #2 MHKECTION COMPOSTING TANK WhUeusuaUylocatedinabasemenUhecomp monofMM^^ ■T.\\.\ Anns he Clivus Multrum is adaptable to all iypes of buildings: t ban and rural, new or existing, seasonal or year-round, «im the arctic to the desert. The kitchen and toilet chutes should be vertical and 12 tank properly inclined and supported. (If vertical rop is impossible, write for information about our r-rizontal conveyor.) The Clivus Multrum can be installed in single-floor or . llti-story structures, over basements or crawl spaces. ; e standard Multrum accepts up to two toilets and the ;»ste chute, but other versions are available for special • }uirements. Double toilet installations can be back»-back or one above the other (slightly off-center to ow two vertical chutes). The vent stack must extend oil above the roof line to minimize down-drafts. The ^ tiaust fan mounts at any convenient level on the stack. The minimum area required for the Multrum tank is (vertical)with4'x9'of floor space. The»ank is imper- ■■His to water, butit should be well suppoi id and idced on a drained surface to prevent floe '^gin * flooded basement. It is important that the air intakes never become blocked. Each Multrum is supplied with an access port which can be installed in a place convenient for easy removal of any objects inadvertently dropped into the compost chamber; TREATING GREY WATER There is another component of waste which is called "grey water." Grey water is the waste water from your bath, dishwashing and laundry which is not treated in the Clivus Multrum system. Clivus Multrum USA has developed innovative solu tions for grey water treatment which entirely eliminate the need for a conventional septic system or municipal treatment. A grey water treatment system, combined with a Clivus Multrum, provides total waste treatment for your home. Clhnn Mutlrom »nd Mullrom »rt u«dem«rk« ol Cllvu* Multrum USA. Inc. OlSaOCIIvtu Multrum USA. Inc. page A white contemporary toilet is an alternative to the from the storage area Multrum has been proven in over30 years of for use on the garden. The entire process is self-contained and uses practically no energy. The slondard UKaen wasie Met is the may be installed in counter or wall. Clivus Multrum system efficient and environmentally sound, it is also attrac tive and adaptable to new or exist ing homes. So, if you are planning to install or replace a waste disposal system, con sider the advantages of Clivus Multrum: Z Cost effective Modern, tasteful design Low maintenance Completely odorless Adaptable to pre viously unusable build ing sites "" Reduced energy, plumbing and leach field requirements Z Low installa tion costs Z Convenient disposal of kitchen and household wastes Z Protection of ground and surface waters ". Requires no water ['. Produces fertile, organic compost 22 use in Scandinavia. There are now more than 5000 units used through out the world, including every state in the U.S. and most provinces of Canada. Quality and reliability have made Clivus Multrum the established leader in the field. " Clivus Multrum USA pioneered alternative waste treatment sys _ tems in this country. We are the industry leader in both current and developing ^technology. Our knowledge and experience assure that you i are buying the best waste treatment system available. The end-product of the composting tank con be safely added to garden soil. page i PARK 23 tfMmHMkftJBMMMMIM page 24 AND FOREST STANLEY PARK - VANCOUVER'S WOODEN HEART Stanley Park, a unique attraction to Vancouver residents and tourists alike, is a 970 acre peninsula situated next to the downtown area. The largest natural park in any city in North America, Stanley Park's "naturalness" no longer means untouched. Of the Park's many man -made attractions, the most popular with both adults and children is the zoo, which contains hundreds of mammals, birds and . reptiles, and an aquarium and whale pool as well. A number of totem poles, excellent examples of ancient Northwest Coast Indian art. are in evidence, along with 150 acres of lawns and gardens, two swimming pools, two swimming beaches and an array of other attractions that include a pitch and putt golf course, cricket pitch, rugby field, baseball diamonds, children's playground, miniature railway and over the years adding more varieties and planting new trees to compensate for the ravages of disease and natural disasters. For instance, more than 22,000 Douglas fir were planted in the spring of 1963 to repair the damage caused by Typhoon Frieda the previous fall. The typhoon cut a swathe through the forest destroying more than 13,000 hemlocks, ripping mature trees from their toe-holds in rotting stumps and crashing them down on a younger generation of trees planted by foresters in the 1930's. Disease and insects take their natural loll on the trees of Stanley Park as in any other forest. The park's forest policy since 1950 has been to replace these dead and dying trees by replanting. Annual replantings number between 5,000 and 7,000 coniferous trees, mnny places to eat and drink. mostly Douglas fir, to maintain a balance with the The park also features a life-size statue of Governor-General Lord Stanley (of hockey's Stanley Cup fame) who dedicated the park in 1889. And a memorial to the poet Pauline Johnson, erected where she wrote some of her most memorable poetry. Above all, Stanley Park is a place of trees, 800 acres of them, of all sizes, ages and varieties. This deciduous trees and to ensure the park keeps its original coast forest character. Policy also ensures that public access is maintained and that the forest cover provides park-like stands for public use. As trees are felled and new ones planted in their place, the forest of Stanley Park has become both an arboretum — a botanical tree-garden — and a natural great forested area lets the visitor imagine he is in the middle of a vast wooded wilderness, hundreds of forest, kept alive and maintained by natural rejuven miles from the throb of a major city. around it. Great trees like the mighty Douglas fir and Western Red cedar form canopies over the trails that lead off the main roads winding through the park. Sunlight peaks through in bright shafts and falls to the earth in cathedral-like rays, between columns of living wood. Where the foliage is this dense, raindrops never reach the ground, and the great trees provide sanctuary in the weather's stormier moods. Between 80,000 and 100,000 trees grow on the park's 800 acres of coastal forest. Because this is a park — a place for people — they are not left to grow, mature and die without control. Man has been at work ation and replanting, and the love of the city Malwrr trm my )' lo V m rfifArtrr *i*J up In »W ktih Y««fi|iliMtlerm« broad UownK pTHmnJ Liwn hta,nthtl Jir Hf«i(t>l anil JifT"*. nijthn win curvt upward OU lltn low thtl Iwm tmt Jrvetop M Ad lb J flJ hJ*n fltfirnrJ «« intt^Ui ><T h lh* thadr. lowrt lurh* ibif i^l Ir*""*. a l*<*^fltaf iruAl 1 ht bail «l * 11*3111' ■'<* h lh*k ami uWply IWuird inin ttdJuh-brpwti raton Iht rtrntln air Hal, <h»ip« pmnird. aboui I" m lm»ih and uftlir tht tprutr. dm prickly to ihr lowh Th» torn ham downward and a«* I" to J" long TlirhracHbrlwrmlhreoneKiJr* art Irtptr (ww>*fJ and pro!ruth *6 •» lo trees or Tne forest Wnlrrn Rrd Crd« Tounfirm «towm» >n ihr cpto btoadljr toBrf*! 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A wxal). «iax(ly iht. «»li«i «tw«r>- Tlir tanj!» bmxhn t4 it4 kr«*% Lit wilh a nurnbrr <*f tlfaiftM unoiith ttrmt aninchor iwnlhxk ll»»»ry buthy whin Krowinjtm ihr optn II dnrui't rairy irur ihnmi Kit H di<n havr nuipnixn <•»■ Md >haip ypvt* an inch which han* <>n aflrr thr Iravn ha«r lallm dntinpiith lh>» irrt or ihluKrom anrothrr. Tlw Hr* <*a (fiw. lo JO" h«h * iht parii Somrtimc* thrtT arr r»ly w»rrat thin tlrmt ur '« f h«h with mJjr a ipanr tli^ay pi lt*»r» and brrnn nrailhrlKf. Thr comrouttdlral btt 9 If I) IraJlrit which <arr>' coanr imh aimcm lo ihr haw The iVxtn *rrW7ult, whiir. and carrtrd in i!at i<f|wJ (linim •>• I" to t~ tim*. :hr Ivtiin att a biqthl BtoaOul Msfj* A m*uir». bmhr lit*. jt Urn it K*ow* itraijthi with a loox Clown of up-TKitniin| branchn HJfmnunline a tlrat irwnk. OJltn foikfd or irvrial trurikt tlow lc«flhrf T hr bark n * imoclh. pair (Trtn on tnini and limht Kii «f atmnallr rmxnm) a dull brown. Thr tta! n bwcatl* (•ttvlti «i tkipr wrth 7 In $ ihcrt kbt* hhhll t whMhacrtharplrn 11 urn 2~ In 6" *tir»i llowrn jpr»ar wrth. or m" aiin whttp arr to mdrlr tpirad «• to br almou <n t »lrai*ht line J/«" lo M/r Ihr Itavn m April Thry arr raiilgr rnr«ftJi*Mt t% pair yrUow hanging k>n«. ihrr air qwrif ltd whra npr. (ruum. Wnlrmtrw A »m«ll Knhy. wu«]y Irrr. wtth a iramrd twitimr. trunk Pn au»* thr yrw prrfm drrp thadt. <1 drvrlnp* *" ungainly linihpaiirin wiih lonithranchrt <<1 unrvrn Irnnih S>"ni nmri thr hfflbl Krow almml lu ihr Rmim] S]*my tftcolt lion Ihr imnl add ■•• Ihr '•"««) ipprauftcr Thr r<h rrd ItnH \* ihr inuith ttaly ba'k air a t.»«d inth-niifK*ii<<nlra1uir. Thr Hal. >hjip pinntrd r>mlln h'vr a «Kmt ^Iiiti, Mnl nrrdlrs arr brlnrm l/)"and)'4 l>»>» l\ill ji(Tn im.Jrwr on IT- thry «Kt>m uripn ol Iwo-ipnr l>chi Kirrtthrlow lhrwrr prndwrt tinjtlrmrrnnh brtrm wruch lum rrdJi>*< >n Sb page Additional Information Common Flora, saljl, willow, huckleberry, blackberry, mountain laurel, azalea, deer fern, maidenhair fern, sword fern. Insect Damage. There have been occasional heavy infestations of hemlock loopers and balsam wooley aphids. The loopers have been controlled, but the aphids have caused extensive mortality to spruce and hemlock. Permanent Sample Plots have been established since 1953 to record ecological changes and provide data and forecast trends and future conditions of forest cover. Potential Wilderness Areas have been designated to represent as closely as possible the conditions of a natural forest. This means the minimum of improvement and cleanup and no forest management as long as the forest remains alive and retains natural characteristics. Stanley Park is administered by the Board of Parks and Public Recreation, City of Vancouver. This brochure has been produced by Labait Breweries of Britis-h Columbia Lid. as part of iheir continuing policy to actively support the protection of the environment. 1 aball's would like to thank the Canadian Forestry Association of British Columbia for the help they gave in supplying the reference material for this brochure. 26 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/18/2011 for the course ENVS 200 taught by Professor Annegrant during the Fall '11 term at Waterloo.

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