Swanhart_Paper (1)

Swanhart_Paper (1) - Integrated Pest Management of Bed...

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Integrated Pest Management of Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius Samantha Swanhart, 1488-4485 IPM 3022 Spring 2012 History of Bed Bugs The origin of bed bug management dates back more than 3,500 years when parasitized bats migrated to humans when they inhabited the same caves in the Mediterranean. Hunters and herdsmen began moving around a lot, causing difficulty for bed bugs to become established. Once humans began to formalize cities and villages, bed bugs were considered pests as well as beneficial. Egyptians used to drink a bed bug cocktail as a cure for snakebites, Greeks and Ro- mans burned them to loosen a leeches hold, and ancients also believed they were a cure for dis- eases when ingested with wine, beans or an egg. Early bed bug management was created by early Greek philosophers around 400 BC, when they hung their feet off a hare or stag at the foot of the bed. Others suggested hanging a bear skin or setting a vessel of cols water under the bed while traveling. As civilization expanded, the poor suffered the most from infestations mainly from un- cleanliness of their bedrooms and heat from sleeping and cooking fires. Bed bugs were intro- duced to the Americas from England around 1583, when European explorers and settlers carried the bugs to seaport towns and moved inland. The earliest publication of bed bug management was in 1730 from John Southall of Eng- land. He wrote a 44-page manual containing bed bug behavior, prevention and control based off of his experiences. To limit infestations, he suggested that belongings of servants to be inspected and beds be “plain and as free from woodwork as possible.” He also had “Non-pariel Liquor,” a bed bug killer he obtained from a Jamaican native. Many other formulas were marketed, but the remedies were unsuccessful without proper application. The worst advice for killing bed bugs was published in 1777, instructing readers to “fill the cracks of the bed with gunpowder and light it in fire.” Bed bugs boosted in numbers by the 1900s, when central heating of buildings became common. Cast iron radiators and electricity, forced warm air to spread around enclosed areas, en- abling the bugs to thrive year-round. During the war years, bed bugs were transported on bed- ding, belts, backpacks, canteens and helmets into many public air-raid shelters. Bed bugs began to spread form their usual places to laundries, dressing rooms, theaters, coat rooms, lockers in school, trains, buses, airplanes- even hospitals. Bed Bug Biology Bed bugs are reddish brown, wingless, 1-7mm, flat insects that mainly feed on human and anim- al blood. They can live several months without feeding. Infestations occur around or near where people sleep or spend a significant period of time, including apartments, hotels, hospitals, cruise ships, trains, dorm rooms and buses. Bed bugs hide during the day in seams of mattresses, bed
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frames, under wallpaper, clutter, etc. and can travel over 100 feet in one night and tend to live within 8 feet of where people sleep. Under favorable conditions, one adult female can lay up to
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Swanhart_Paper (1) - Integrated Pest Management of Bed...

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