S.Swanhart Lab Report 2

S.Swanhart Lab Report 2 - Comparing the Fatal Effects of...

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Comparing the Fatal Effects of Biological Control and Pesticide Application on Aph- ids Samantha Swanhart 1488-4485 ENY 3005C July 12, 2011
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Abstract Biological control has been used in many different methods to control pests in crops. One form of augmentative biological control, called inoculation, has become more popular based on its greater flexibility and emphasis as a greater economical op- tion. The goal of biological control is to reduce or eradicate the use of harmful, expens- ive pesticides and still continuing to yield the same if not more profit and harvest from reduced damage. The ratio of aphids to lady beetles are essential to ensure the most ef- ficient system of control. Lady beetles are able to consume more than one aphid in a day, thus requiring less in volume to control a population almost double it’s size. The fu- ture of biological control in forms of research and installment are guaranteed to reshape and reform the traditional uses of pest control on small and large scale applications. Introduction
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Biological control can be defined as the utilization of beneficial microorganisms to suppress plant disease (Johnson, 2010). In order for biological control to be success- fully implemented to replace pesticides, it is necessary to first explore the natural en- emies in the region of origin of the pest. The natural enemies of the area automatically control the pests in their region of origin, therefore by identifying and collecting these natural enemies, the researcher or scientist can inventory and stockpile the natural en- emies is preparation for use of biological control. There are various methods plant pathologists utilize these beneficial insects to control or suppress diseases. One method involves genetically variant insects called “parasitoids,” sometimes mistaken for parasites, but are developed to commandeer the host’s resources in order to complete metamorphosis, in exchange, deteriorating the host’s vitality. Parasitoids have been noted to secrete certain steroids and juvenile hormone into the host, be- lieved to enhance the development of the parasitoid. (Beckage and Gelman, 2004). The parasite is notably different because of its contrasting characteristics of rarely at- taching to a single host or changing hosts, size ratio to the host, etc. Augmentative biological control utilizes the technique of inoculation (routine intro- duction) of inundation (flooding) of beneficial insects in sufficient amounts to achieve control without need of reproduction. (Johnson, 2010). There are other methods includ- ing classical and conservation, but for means of plant pathology diagnostics, it is more likely to use inoculation methods. The use of banker plants have also become a re- source of biological control in most crop plants. To develop, a non-crop plant is used to cultivate a non-pest (beneficial) species and reproduce natural enemies for the crop
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plants. This method provides natural enemies that may not always be commercially
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S.Swanhart Lab Report 2 - Comparing the Fatal Effects of...

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