Unit 5 SG - Unit 5 Maintenance and Movement Study Guide...

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Unformatted text preview: Unit 5 - Maintenance and Movement Study Guide Unit objectives: 1. Describe embryonic origin of alimentary canal divisions. 2. Draw and label generalized alimentary canal and describe function of each component. 3. Draw and label generalized insect circulatory system and describe circulation pattern. 4. Describe the tracheal system of insects and define trachea, tracheoles, and taenidia. 5. Describe how insects maintain proper body temperature and how they keep from freezing. Introduction Alimentary Canal Fill out the functions for the digestive structures. Table 1 Structure Function preoral cavity mouth opens to preoral cavity which grinds and receives food as it fi rst enters the body pharynx esophagus salivary gland crop proventriculus midgut gastric caeca Malphigian tubules* peritrophic membrane ileum colon rectum anus first region of foregut heavily muscled for swallowing swallows food and dumps it into crop secretes fl uid to lubricate food as it passes out of pharynx & down esophagus and into crop (also secretes some digestive enzyme) stores food while midgut enzymes (in some insects) enter through proventriculus to digest the food acts as valve between crop and midgut. often contains heavy teeth for further grinding of food secretes digestive enzymes & peritrophic membrane. absorbs nutrients from food broken down by digestive enzymes fingerlike pouches off midgut. known to house symbiotic bacteria filters harmful substances and nitrogenous waste from hemolymph membrane secreted by midgut cells to protect cells of mid/hindgut. encloses f ood but permeable to enzymes; digestive products removed and furtherdigestion first part of hindgut; larger than colon narrower portion of hindgut posterior part of hindgut. dehydrates waste and compresses it into pellets expels compressed waste out of insects body Label Diagram 1 using your textbook as a guide. Diagram 1 gastric caecum proventriculus ventriculus crop ileum oesophagus rectum pharynx anus preoral cavity malpighian tubule Alimentary canal embryonic origins Which embryonic layer formed the midgut? Which one formed the hindgut? peritrophic membrane colon ectoderm ectoderm What happens to the foregut and hindgut lining when the insect molts? they have a cuticular lining similar to exoskeleton- it sheds with exoskeleton What is the lining made of? chitins and proteins Tracheal system Why don't insects have lungs? air enters through spiracles What is the function of the tracheal system? getting air into their bodies What is the function of spiracles? how much air is allowed into the insect body What is the function of taenidia? thickened bands around trachea, flexible enough to bend but rigid to not collapse close How does oxygen get to every cell in the insect body? tracheloes (branches from trachea) gets within few cell diameters of each cell Circulatory system Why is insect blood not red? lacks hemoglobin Does hemolymph transport oxygen to cells? What is the insect heart? Define ostia: no- carries nutrients, regulates ions, fights dz and heals wounds dorsal vessel tiny openings in abdominal region of vessel, control how much hemolymph enters the vessel Define aorta: remainder of the vessel minus ostia How does hemolymph move throughout the insect body? What direction does it flow? pulsating organs (sit at base of antenna or wings and pump hemolymph into appendages) fl ows from body cavity -> organs -> wing veins How does hemolymph get into the wings and antenna? Label the following circulatory system in diagram 2. Use your text for reference. Diagram 2 1. aorta 10. 2. 11. wing circulation 3. dorsal vessel; heart 12. 4. ostia 13. 5. dorsal diaphragm heart 14. 6. ventral nerve cord 15. 7. ventral diaphragm 16. 8. septa dividing appendages 17. 9. brain Hemocyte nucleus 5.4 Maintaining body temperature When an insect is at rest, what is its body temperature? ambient temperature What are some ways insects increase their body temperature? basking (posture and orientation), flight What are some ways insects keep from freezing? supercooling- remaining liquid at subzero temps without ice formation (evacuation of digestive system to remove promoters of ice nucleation) Refer back to the unit objectives and see that you have met them. GOOD LUCK ON EXAM 1! ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/16/2011 for the course ENY 3005 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '08 term at University of Florida.

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