Unit 7 SG - Unit 7 - Getting Together & Staying...

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Unformatted text preview: Unit 7 - Getting Together & Staying Alive Study Guide Unit objectives: 1. Name and describe 5 ways insects get together to mate. 2. Using an example, describe each of the different ways insects protect themselves that were discussed in the web lecture. 3. Define Mullerian and Batesian Mimicry. 4. Define and give examples of aposematic coloring/behavior. Introduction Looking & Smelling Good Why did the Jewel mistake the beer bottle for a mate? Only certain beer bottles have just the right color and texture Why did the male silk moth have a hard time finding his mate once he got close to her? Sounding Sweet As he gets closer, the scent grows stronger and the waves turn into a fl ood. She could be anywhere here; it seems like sheʼs everywhere. How does the Polka Dot Moth overcome the problem that the silk moth had once the male gets close to the female? A male moth hones in on a female scent. She avoids any last minute confusion by switching to a finer signal, a beam of sound. Why doesn't the Polka Dot Moth care if predators hear their broadcast? These brightly colored moths are very poisonous Why does a leafhopper sound have to be as "private as a phone call?" They transmit vibrations through their legs to the plant stems, and the sound is received by t ouch. In other words, leafhoppers hear with their feet. How does leafhopper "hear" with its feet? How do cicadas, grasshoppers and crickets pick up sound? vibrating a drum-like structure on their abdomen called a tymbal. male plays his song, female picks up the sound with a smaller organ (tympanum.) has a membrane stretched tightly across an air-filled chamber, similar to how a membrane is stretched across a drum. When sound waves strike tympanum membrane, it vibrates just as when you strike a drum with a stick. vibrations trigger a nerve, sending message to brain and cause female to respond to male's call. Do crickets rub their legs together to make sound? Lamp Light How does a firefly use his/her light organ to attract a mate? flashing patterns How does the Photuris species dupe the male of another species? females of Photuris species lure males of different species by mimicking their female's flashing pattern. When the misled male lands, the fraudulent female attacks him and then eats him READ journal article attached. Why did Dr. Lloyd suspect this behavior was happening? What date did he first observe it and where? he would keep fireflies in the same container, but by morning the female had dismembered the males. Goochland County, Virginia, June 1963. What university was Dr. Lloyd working at when he published his journal article? Cornell Buying Love How do stag beetles fight? clash head-on, first to dislodge his opponent is winner What country can you found these stag beetles in? Thailand Where does the female fruit fly need to lay her egg on the walnut? soft part/blemish of a walnut How do fruit fly males "fight" to lay claim to a walnut? they compare size; the larger one wins STAYING ALIVE Timing Why would an insect want to molt in the early morning? How would this be advantageous? Some have adapted to molting in the early morning when humidity is high, emerging in the cooler months when predators are not as active or emerging at the same time so chances for mating increases or simply going into diapause to escape harsh temperatures. What happens to the level of JH in a diapausing adult? suppreses What happens to the level of ecdysone in diapausing pupae? ecdysone is not produced, and thus, the pupae cannot emerge until the hormone level surges to stimulate molting Radar detection & Hiding How does the praying mantis escape the bat? Praying mantids can detect the radar, and drop out of sight before a bat can catch it. List two or three ways insects camouflage themselves. The wavy lines and blotchy patterns of geometrid moth conceal it when Treehoppers seem to be a part of a tree stem or can look like a thorn on a branch. Walkingsticks, as their name suggests, look like twigs or branches. up against a tree. Speed & Armor What happens to the beetle when the Land Rover runs over him? hides in sand underneath, then reappears Armed & Dangerous Can the stinger keep stinging you once the honeybee has left it behind? Why? Honey bees have tiny hooks at the tips and once the stinger has been pierced into the victim, the barbs prevent the stinger from being removed, thus, as the bee struggles to get away, the stinger is left behind pumping more and more venom in the prey. Chemical Warfare How does the Bombardier beetle ward off predators? sprays a noxious chemical from his abdominal tip Why won't the scrub jays eat the Utetheisa moth? it eats poisonous legumes so therefore is distasteful to birds. How does the moth's coloring warn predators not to eat it? Once an unsuspecting predator is stung by one of these, he won't forget what they look like, because they instantly recognize the pattern. The next time he sees anything that resembles the pattern, he will quickly get out of harm's way, even if the insect is not harmful How does a wasp's coloring warn predators? What is aposematic coloring or behavior? imposter mimicing another insects color or behavior as a survival method Imposters What is Batesian mimicry? Give an example. Rather than just having the conspicuous coloring to warn off predators, some insects display conspicuous behavior.They may purposefully fly slowly and deliberately so that their aposematic colors are well seen. Some firefly larvae will flash their lamp organ when a predator approaches to warn them. What is Mullerian mimicry? Give an example. both species mimic each other and they are both bad to eat. The monarch and the viceroy butterflies are malaria mimics of each other. They look alike but they are both harmful to birds because as larvae the caterpillars feed on milkweed and milkweed contains toxic chemicals that induce vomiting in birds and cattle. Migration Give 2 examples of insects that migrate? What are some reasons insects migrate? Monarchs are famous for their 1000 mile journey to Mexico and southern California each year. At each wintering site, you can find millions of butterflies just on one tree. Not only do insects travel south to escape harsh winter conditions, they have also been known to migrate to find more favorable food conditions. Locusts have been recorded to migrate from Western Africa to the West Indies of North America. Journal Assignment - Looking good, Smelling good, and Sounding Sweet ...
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