Unformatted text preview: Unit 9-Adaptations to Habitats
1. Define ecology and the related terms discussed. 2. Build a simple food web using only insects for the primary, secondary and tertiary trophic levels. 3. Describe the ways insects have adapted to the soil and aquatic environments. 4. Discuss the advantage of biological monitoring and the specific indications of poor water quality. Define
Ecology branch of entomology that focuses on the interrelationships between insects and their environment. Environment all of the living things as well as the nonliving things, biotic & abiotic system, and all of the components interact within a framework called a natural community
locality or site and the type of the environment that an organism lives in: a pond, a ﬁeld, a stump, an oak tree, these are all examples of habitats
ecological role a species plays within a community such as an insect that feeds on the roots of grasses or one that eats aphids on the leaves.
Itʼs what an organism does for a living within a habitat.
a group or an individual organism that belongs to the same species and lives in a particular geographic location
all of the organisms living in a particular area and includes populations of different species of plants and animals, and many times these are represented as a food chain.
And each link of the food chain represents a trophic level encompassing either producers, which are generally plants, or consumers, which are usually animals
combination of community of organisms (food chain) in an area, and abiotic factors such as the air, the water, the soil, or any other minerals or things that are nonliving.
Lentic of standing water Lotic of ﬂowing water
What is a hydrofuge?
structures that they are water repellent and will allow the insect to hang there; not ﬁxed at the surface, they move their muscles
and fall onto the bottom to avoid predation, but eventually ﬂoat back up to the surface so they can breathe.
What is a plastron?
insects that carry with them air from the surface, as a ﬁlm or bubble
Describe what a Food web is and explain the different trophic levels in a food web. see community
Understand the different functional feeding groups such as shredders, collectors, etc.
How can insects be used to determine the level of pollution in aquatic habitats?
What is the advantage of biological monitoring over chemical testing?
you can collect the sample at any time and still get a reliable water quality reading. This is
because the insects are constantly sampling the water over long periods of time.
What are some of the common water quality indicators to consider when considering aquatic habitat sampling?
What are some of the insects that are found in aquatic habitats? What type of environment do the brine flies prefer? What do the brine flies eat and how do they reach their food source?
M ono Lake in southern California—so salty that few creatures can survive here except primitive algae.
brine ﬂies submerge in a self-contained bubble of air, and feed on the algae
What are some of the advantages of living in the soil (if you were and insect)?
tant and moderated temperature that is cooler than the outside air in the summer and warmer than the outside air in the winter, air down in the soil also is very humid,
which most insects prefer. The soil also provides concealment and protection for vulnerable eggs, larvae and pupae.
What are the characteristics that you would expect to find in an insect that lives in the soil?
surface: good vision, pigmented bodies, so they have color, and they have long appendages
subsurface: length and size of the appendages are reduced, pigmentation of the body is lost, the bodies are less scleritized and eyes are reduced or are completely absent
What are some of the ways in which insects recycle nutrients?
What are some of the unique aspects of leafcutter ants? How do they benefit the rainforests?
Each leafcutter ant will clip a large portion of a leaf with its powerful jaws, carry the leafcut to the nest, where the leafcuts are used to grow a fungus that the ants harvest for food
leafcutters are pretty vital elements of the rainforestʼs ecosystem—they move, they aerate, they fertilize more soil than earthworms.”
What is the general rule of 10’s? there are 10,000 J of energy stored in the body of plants at the producer level.
If the primary consumers were to eat 10,000 J worth of plants, only 1000
J worth of heat energy would actually be turned into grasshopper bodies. The rest would either be burned as energy or simply passed on as excrement.
The same amount of loss would occur on average at the next two levels which is why a ﬁeld can support more mice than it can snakes.
This is called the general rule of tens, since on average only 10% of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next.
So you can see how little energy is transferred to the tertiary level, that started out at the producer level. ...
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- Summer '08
- Ecology, different trophic levels, tertiary trophic levels, simple food web