LECTURE 2 - Theoretical Perspectives & Conducting Research

LECTURE 2 - Theoretical Perspectives & Conducting Research

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Theoretical Perspectives and Conducting Research on Health, Illness, and Medicine September 20, 2011 HSS3321 B: Sociology of Health *Information is taken from Chapter 2 in Health, Illness, and Medicine in Canada (2008) by J. N. Clarke (and from other sources where indicated) *Original Presentations Developed by: Professors Miriam Levitt & Gaetan Girard Current Lecture Adapted/Developed by Professor: Dr. Sonia Gulati
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Topics to be Covered To describe and analyze the methodologies used in the four theoretical/sociological perspectives: Structural functionalism Conflict theory Symbolic interactionism Feminist and anti-racist theory To describe the ways of studying, the principles of knowing, and the methods of proof adopted by each sociological paradigm Information is taken from Chapter 2: Health, Illness, and Medicine in Canada. Clarke 2008
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PART 1: RESEARCH PARADIGMS
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Information is taken from Chapter 2: Health, Illness, and Medicine in Canada. Clarke 2008 Structural-functionalists tend to use positivism and quantitative methods (Positivist or Post-Positivist Research Paradigms) Conflict, feminist, and critical race theorists use whatever methodologies are necessary to document injustice (Critical Research Paradigms) Symbolic interactionists tend to use qualitative methods (Interpretive or Constructivist Research Paradigms) Theoretical Perspective and Methodology
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Information is taken from Chapter 1: Health, Illness, and Medicine in Canada. Clarke 2008
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What is a theory? Attempt to bind together in a systematic fashion the knowledge that one has of some particular aspect of the world or experience. General statement(s) about logical relationships between variables to explain a class of phenomena. Descriptive in nature and promotes understanding. Function is to help make predictions.
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What is a research paradigm? Assist researchers in determining what is real and essential, how to proceed in daily research activities, and propose a set of assumptions, concepts and values about what can be known. Described as a worldview, a way of looking at and interpreting the world and reality. Provides a lens through which to develop, initiate, and continue a particular research tradition. (Kuhn, 1970; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Denzin & Lincoln, 2000)
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Ontology – What is the nature of the reality? How does the researcher view/understand the reality or the world? Epistemology – What is the relationship between the researcher and the reality or what is to be known? Methodology – How can the researcher gain knowledge and find out what is to be known? Elements of a Research Paradigm Krupa, T., 2003
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Positivist Research Paradigm The world is an objective reality that can be studied, measured and understood precisely. Findings are claimed as being true or facts.
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LECTURE 2 - Theoretical Perspectives & Conducting Research

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