LECTURE 3 - Canada in National & International Context

LECTURE 3 - Canada in National & International...

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Historical Overview of Health and Illness: Examining Canada in the National and International Context *Information is taken from Chapter 3 in Health, Illness, and Medicine in Canada (2008) by J. N. Clarke (and from other sources where indicated) *Original Presentations Developed by: Professors Miriam Levitt & Gaetan Girard Current Lecture Adapted/Developed by Professor: Dr. Sonia Gulati
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Explanations for variations in life expectancy Variation in rates of disease, death and the physical and social determinants Major causes of death in Canada Potential years of life lost (PYLL) Behavioural pre-requisites to disease Sexuality New infectious diseases in Canada Information is taken from Chapter 3: Health, Illness, and Medicine in Canada. Clarke 2008 Topics to be Covered
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PART 1: LIFE EXPECTANCY
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Life Expectancy The average life expectancy for men and women has varied over the years and through many different types of social and economic arrangements Canada – 1831: 39 years – 2004: 80 years – Females born in 2001: 82.2 years – Males born in 2001: 79.7 years Information is taken from Chapter 3: Health, Illness, and Medicine in Canada. Clarke 2008
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Life Expectancy: Explanations 1. Epidemiological transition (Omran, 1979) ...as the economy changes from low to high per capita income, there is a corresponding transition from high mortality and high fertility TO low mortality and low fertility. .. Changes in the patterns of disease: three distinct stages – The Age of Pestilence and Famine – high mortality rate is largely attributable to famine and infectious diseases – The Age of Receding Pandemics – decrease in epidemics , and consequent decline in the mortality rate – The Age of Degenerative and Man-Made Diseases – fertility rate begins to decline as people begin to live longer and die of emerging industrial and degenerative diseases (e.g., cancer, stroke) Information is taken from Chapter 3: Health, Illness, and Medicine in Canada. Clarke 2008
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2. ‘Sequential improvements’ (McKeown, 1976) - Studies over the last few hundred years – First: due to decline in infectious disease – Second: due to improvements in: • Nutrition and hygiene; • Control of disease causing microorganisms • Birth control Study of 1901-1971 showed that the increase in life expectancy was a result of: – Improved nutrition: ~ 50% – Better hygiene: ~ 15% – Immunization & medical therapy: ~ 10% cont’d life expectancy explanations… Information is taken from Chapter 3: Health, Illness, and Medicine in Canada. Clarke 2008
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3. ‘Socio-Economic Resources’ (Kim & Moody, 1992) - Infant mortality rate (117 countries) - Evaluated importance of Medicine vs. Socio-economic resources - Findings: Contribution of medical resources to the health of population is small compared to socio-economic resources 4. Political Economy Perspective – Considers the place of workers in the global economy in terms of
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LECTURE 3 - Canada in National & International...

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