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Unformatted text preview: Review questions from Lectures 1 and 2 • List some of the different major pathways related to intermediary metabolism. TCA cycle; glycolysis, FA oxidation, electron transport chain • Why are metabolic controls necessary? To provide useful levels of metabolites that will allow the many pathways to function together in an integrated way • What are some different types of regulatory controls of enzyme amounts and activity ? Transcriptional; translational; post-translational modification; allosteric effects; enzyme degradation; compartmentalization • List some ways that results of DNA microarrays and proteomic arrays could be of use in metabolic studies. To identify changes in gene expression and I protein levels and characteristics; pathways in disease and its treatment • What is metabolomics ? Why is it useful? Simultaneous unbiased measurement of large numbers of metabolites in samples. Useful in study of metabolic pathways and their control under a variety of conditions. • What is a Metabolic Control Analysis ? An approach/tool that allows researchers to identify the most important rate controlling steps, and the distribution of control within pathways. TCA Pie (to the tune of American Pie, by Don McLean) Some small, small things exist Called the mitochondria, Prokaryotes with a double membrane. Inside of all these many folds, A process occurs that's really old, Which I will take a minute to explain. First glycolysis brings forth pyruvates, But before forming six carbon citrates They become acetyl-CoA's Through pyruvate dehydrogenase. It caused CO2 to go, Which took NADH in tow. CoA-SH leaves the show In the cycle of TCA Chorus: [Hey, hey gotta learn TCA You may scoff, just blame the prof, Or try it for the A. For metabolic disease and drugs to cure them away Who knows, it might come in handy someday It might come in handy someday] H20 arrives about here, Citrate synthase makes citrate appear. Next to come, aconitase. And aconitase makes cis-aconitate. The same will make an isocitrate, First water leaves and comes back to its place Then isocitrate dehydrogenase Reduces NAD and, just in case, It frees another CO2, And that isn't all it can do. It also makes alpha-ketoglutarate. Being a five-carbon is in its fate. Halfway to oxaloacetate, In the cycle of TCA, I started thinkin [chorus] Alpha-ketoglutarate won't be fazed. It also has a dehydrogenase. But Change is just an enzyme away. But this time it takes a CoA-SH And releases CO2 and NADH This time making succinyl-CoA Next, a synthetase, you see, Kicks CoA-SH, makes GTP. Succinate comes on through, Its dehydrogenase too. FADH2 takes a spin, while fumarate is formed within. Water then just comes on in In the cycle of TCA I started thinking [chorus] And that water that I mentioned before Well fumarase uses it for a chore It takes it to make create mallate There is now one step left at last Malate dehydrogenase cast Our last product oxaloacetate Well that was the last step of the loop And it made a NADH for a hoot...
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- Winter '11