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Chapter 7 - Chapter 7 The Auditory System Music and Speech...

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Chapter 7- The Auditory System: Music and Speech Perception A. Music Perception Musical Pitch and Timbre - Musical instruments produce complex tones w/ a fundamental frequency and harmonics. - Pitch produced by such a tone = musical pitch . - Piano middle C note’s s tring has a fundamental frequency of ~261 Hz. Pitch sensations from complex tones: - The fundamental frequency (f) is represented toward the apex of the basilar membrane, w/ each successive harmonic (2 f, 3 f, etc.) represented further toward the base. - As all harmonics are multiples of the first (f), individual BM representations have fixed distance relationships to each other. - This spatial pattern of peak wave activity on the BM is the critical factor in producing a single pitch perception by a complex musical tone. Musical scales general concepts: - Effort to create a musical scale began w/ the Greeks as early as the 4 th c. BCE. - Most cultures have since employed a 2:1 frequency ratio as fundamental interval of musical pitch octave = interval encompassed by 2 tones that differ in pitch but sound alike. o Fundamental freq. must be doubled to move up 1 octave + halved to move down 1. - Effective range of musical pitch spans ~7 octaves, although the frequency range of human hearing spans 10 octaves (tones w/ fundamentals above 4500 are not musically suitable). Musical scales chromatic intervals and tone height: - Musical tones are represented by alphabetical notation rather than by frequency content. - Musical pitch w/in an octave is not defined as a continuous parameter, but rather forms a series of discrete transitions; the smaller intervals w/in are largely culture dependent. - Relative position of the tones w/in an octave = tone chroma ; represented circularly.
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