chapter 11 notes

chapter 11 notes - CHAPTER 11 Emotion General in humans the...

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CHAPTER 11: Emotion General: in humans, the patterns of physiological responses and species-typical behaviours known as emotion are accompanied by feelings; the useful purposes served by emotional behaviours are what guided the evolution of our brain, and feelings developed later. A. Emotions as response patterns 3 types of components are involved in an emotional response, each controlled by separate neural systems: 1. behavioural → consists of muscle movements appropriate to situation eliciting them. e.g. a dog defending its territory adopts an aggressive posture, growls, attacks, etc. 2. autonomic → repsonses that facilitate behaviours and provide quick mobilization of energy for vigorous movement. (w/above example): sympathetic branch activity increases, parasympathetic branch decreases; dog's heart rate increases, blood flows towards muscles. 3. hormonal → reinforce autonomic responses. Hormones from adrenal medulla (epinephrine/norepinephrine) further increase blood flow to muscles and cause stored nutrients to convert to glucose. Fear: the integration of components of fear is controlled by the amygdala (temporal lobes). Research has shown that single neurons in various nuclei of amygdala are activated by emotionally relevant stimuli: e.g. the sound of a lab door opening (in a lab animal). 3 major regions of the amygdala: 1. the lateral nucleus (LA) → receives input from all regions of neocortex; sends info to: 2. the basal nucleus (B) and other parts of brain, incl. the ventral striatum and the dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, which projects to the prefrontal cortex. The LA and B nuclei send info to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the: 3. central nucleus (CE) → projects to regions of hypothalamus, pons, midbrain, and medulla responsible for expression of various components of emotional responses. The CE is crucial for responses elicited by aversive stimuli, eg fear. Perception of threatening stimuli increase Fos proteins in the CE. Animals w/CE damage (or nuclei that give it info) act more tamely when handled by people, have less stress hormone in their blood, and are less likely to develop ulcers/stress disorders. Left out: amygdala connections and effects; diagram on page 369. Stimulation of the central amygdala w/electricity or excitatory amino acid elicits physiological and behavioural signs of fear/agitation in the animal. A few stimuli, such as loud unexpected noises, approach of large animals, heights, or series- specific sounds/odors, automatically activate the central nucleus of amygdala and cause fear. More important is theability to learn a particular stimulus/situation is dangerous/threatening. Most basic form of emotional learning: conditioned emotional response.
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