chapter 17 notes

chapter 17 notes - CHAPTER 17 Anxiety disorders Autism ADHD...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
CHAPTER 17: Anxiety disorders, Autism, ADHD, and Stress A. Anxiety disorders → characterized by unrealistic, unfounded fear, tension, automatic nervous system overactivity, expectation of disaster, constant vigilance for danger. Panic disorder : episodic periods of symptoms such as shortness of breath, irregularities in heartbeat, and other autonomic symptoms; accompanied by intense fear. Prevalence is just under 2%; women a little more than twice as likely to suffer from it. Between panic attacks many people w/ panic disorder suffer from anticipatory anxiety: the fear that another panic attack will strike them, may lead to development of agoraphobia. Generalized anxiety disorder : excessive anxiety and worry serious enough to disrupt one's life. Prevalence is just under 3%; incidence is also about 2 times greater in women than in men. Social anxiety disorder : excessive fear of exposure to scrutiny of others that leads to avoidance of social situations in which a person is called on to perform, which cause intense distress. Prevalence is about 5% and equally likely in men and women. Possible causes: These 3 forms of anxiety disorder all have a hereditary component. As w/ depression, people w/ anxiety disorders have at least one short allele of the 5-HT transporter gene. The amygdala and cingulate, prefrontal, and insular cortices are involved in anxiety disorders. Decreased orbitofrontal activity and increased amygdala activity= recorded during panic attack. People w/anxiety show less ventrolateral PFC activation, which normally inhibits the amygdala. Treatment: sometimes treated w/ benzodiazepines, which target GABA-A receptors. The amygdala contains large #s of GABA-A receptors; benzodiazepines such as lorazepam decrease activation of amygdala and insula of subjects looking at emotional faces. Benzodiazepine antagonists produce panic in panic disorder patients, but not in controls. Serotonin also plays role in anxiety disorders. SSRIs are first-line medications for treating not only depression but anxiety disorders and OCD as well. Eg: fluvoxamine reduces panic attacks. Indirect NMDA receptors that attach to glycine binding site (used for schizophrenics), may also work for anxiety. D-cyclerosine (w/cognitive behavioral therapy)=used to treat anxiety patients. D-cyclerosine has been found to treat many phobias as well as social anxiety disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy (eg virtual reality experience of one's fear) has been used to desensitize patient to their objects of fear. Works by extinguishing a conditioned response. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: involves uncontrollable thoughts (obsession)+behavior (compulsions). Prevalence is ~1-2%; females are slightly more likely to develop OCD than males.
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern