chapter 17 notes

chapter 17 notes - CHAPTER 17: Anxiety disorders, Autism,...

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CHAPTER 17: Anxiety disorders, Autism, ADHD, and Stress A. Anxiety disorders → characterized by unrealistic, unfounded fear, tension, automatic nervous system overactivity, expectation of disaster, constant vigilance for danger. Panic disorder : episodic periods of symptoms such as shortness of breath, irregularities in heartbeat, and other autonomic symptoms; accompanied by intense fear. Prevalence is just under 2%; women a little more than twice as likely to suffer from it. Between panic attacks many people w/ panic disorder suffer from anticipatory anxiety: the fear that another panic attack will strike them, may lead to development of agoraphobia. Generalized anxiety disorder : excessive anxiety and worry serious enough to disrupt one's life. Prevalence is just under 3%; incidence is also about 2 times greater in women than in men. Social anxiety disorder : excessive fear of exposure to scrutiny of others that leads to avoidance of social situations in which a person is called on to perform, which cause intense distress. Prevalence is about 5% and equally likely in men and women. Possible causes: These 3 forms of anxiety disorder all have a hereditary component. As w/ depression, people w/ anxiety disorders have at least one short allele of the 5-HT transporter gene. The amygdala and cingulate, prefrontal, and insular cortices are involved in anxiety disorders. Decreased orbitofrontal activity and increased amygdala activity= recorded during panic attack. People w/anxiety show less ventrolateral PFC activation, which normally inhibits the amygdala. Treatment: sometimes treated w/ benzodiazepines, which target GABA-A receptors. The amygdala contains large #s of GABA-A receptors; benzodiazepines such as lorazepam decrease activation of amygdala and insula of subjects looking at emotional faces. Benzodiazepine antagonists produce panic in panic disorder patients, but not in controls. Serotonin also plays role in anxiety disorders. SSRIs are first-line medications for treating not only depression but anxiety disorders and OCD as well. Eg: fluvoxamine reduces panic attacks. Indirect NMDA receptors that attach to glycine binding site (used for schizophrenics), may also work for anxiety. D-cyclerosine (w/cognitive behavioral therapy)=used to treat anxiety patients. D-cyclerosine has been found to treat many phobias as well as social anxiety disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy (eg virtual reality experience of one's fear) has been used to desensitize patient to their objects of fear. Works by extinguishing a conditioned response. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: involves uncontrollable thoughts (obsession)+behavior (compulsions). Prevalence is ~1-2%; females are slightly more likely to develop OCD than males.
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This note was uploaded on 12/18/2011 for the course PSYC 211 taught by Professor Yogitachudasama during the Winter '09 term at McGill.

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chapter 17 notes - CHAPTER 17: Anxiety disorders, Autism,...

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