Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - Chapter 2: Introduction to Developmental...

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Chapter 2: Introduction to Developmental Psychology/Research Strategies 6 major/broad theoretical traditions of human development: 1. Psychoanalytic (Freud- psychosexual, Erikson- psychosocial) 2. Learning (Watson- Behaviourism, Skinner- Operant, Bandura) 3. Cognitive-developmental (Piaget, Vygotsky-sociocultural) 4. Information-processing (criticisms of Piaget) 5. Evolutionary (ethology, Darwin, altruism) 6. Ecological systems (Bronfenbrenner’s contexts for development) Broad themes of development: A. Nature/Nurture (biological predispositions vs. environmental influences) B. Active/Passive (question of child’s role in his own development) C. Continuity/Discontinuity (quantitative + continuous vs. qualitative + discontinuous change) D. Holistic/Modular (question of interrelatedness of different developmental aspects) Psychoanalytic theories: 1. Freud’s Psychosexual Theory that maturation of the sex instinct underlies stages of personality development, and the manner in which parents manage children’s instinctual impulses determines the traits that children display. - Freud (1856-1939) used such methods as hypnosis, free association (quick spilling of thoughts) and dream analysis, because he believed them to give some indication of unconscious motives that had been repressed. - He analysed these motives + the events that led to their repression + concluded that development is a conflictual process. - His theory proposes 3 components of personality : o Id - present at birth, function= to satisfy inborn biological instincts. o Ego - conscious, rational component, function= finding socially accepted ways of gratifying instincts (i.e. controls id) o Superego - seat of conscience, develops ~ages 3-6, when child internalizes moral values of parents; function= internal censorship.
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- Freud’s psychosexual stages: 1. Oral (birth-1) sex instinct focus on mouth (feeding, biting, etc.) 2. Anal (1-3) sex instinct focus on voluntary urination/defecation. 3. Phallic (3-6) sex instinct focus on genital stimulation – Oedipus complex; leads to internalization of same-sex parent’s moral values + characteristics and hence the emergence of the superego. 4. Latency (6-11) phallic stage traumas cause sex instinct repression; focus=school/play; superego +ego continue developing. 5. Genital (12 onward) puberty triggers reawakening of sexual urges, which must be repressed in socially acceptable ways. - Freud’s greatest contributions: idea of unconscious motivation, focus on effects of early experience on later development, and study of the emotional side of development. 2. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory emphasizes sociocultural (rather than sexual) determinants of development + posits a series of 8 psychosocial conflict stages that must be resolved successfully. -
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Chapter 2 - Chapter 2: Introduction to Developmental...

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