Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Chapter 5: Infancy Sensation: detection of...

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Chapter 5: Infancy Sensation: detection of stimuli by sensory receptors + transmission of this information to the brain. Perception: process by which we categorize + interpret sensory input. The newborn’s readiness for life Infant states There are 6 infant states of arousal: 1. Regular sleep - baby is still; eyes closed/unmoving; breathing slow and regular. Daily duration in newborn = 8-9 hours. 2. Irregular sleep - REM sleep- eyes closed but moving; may jerk/ grimace in response to stimulation; breathing may be irregular. Daily duration = 8-9 hours. 3. Drowsiness - baby is falling asleep or waking up; eyes open and close and have a glazed appearance; breathing is regular but more rapid than in regular sleep. Daily duration = ½-3 hours. 4. Alert inactivity - baby’s eyes wide open and bright, exploring some aspect of environment; even breathing; relatively inactive body. Daily duration = 2-3 hours. 5. Alert activity - baby’s eyes open; breathing irregular; may become fussy; displays various spurts of diffuse motor activity. 1-3 hours. 6. Crying - intense crying that may be difficult to stop; accompanied by high levels of motor activity. Daily duration = 1-3 hours. - Infants spend ~70% of their time sleeping. - Sleep cycles are brief, lasting from 45 min to 1 hour and separated by periods of drowsiness, alert/inalert activity, and crying. - Fact that neonates pass through a predictable (discontinuous, qualitative) pattern indicates well-organized internal regulatory mechanisms (but there is a high degree of individual variability).
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Developmental changes in infant states Changes in sleep : - As infants develop, they spend less and less time sleeping. - By age 2-6 weeks, babies only sleep 14-16 hours a day. - Btw 3-7 months of age, infants usually begin sleeping through the night and require only 2-3 shorter naps during the day. - From at least 2 weeks before they are born through the first two months of life, babies spend at least ½ their sleeping hours in REM. o Active REM sleep early in life provides enough internal stimulation to allow the nervous system to develop properly when lots of sleep is necessary = autostimulation theory . o Correlate: babies who are given lots of interesting stimulation while awake spend less time in REM sleep. - Leading cause of infant mortality= SIDS , a sleep-related disorder. Functions and course of crying: - Earliest cries are unlearned + involuntary responses to discomfort such as pain, hunger, chills, loud noises, wet diaper, sudden changes in illumination, etc. makes caregiver aware of distress. - Cries of hunger, pain, etc. are similar and depend more on the amount of distress they imply rather than the kind of distress. Developmental changes in crying:
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Chapter 5 - Chapter 5: Infancy Sensation: detection of...

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