Chapter 9 Respiratory System 2009

Chapter 9 Respiratory System 2009 - Chapter 22 INTRODUCTION...

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Chapter 22
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INTRODUCTION major function of respiratory system is to supply O 2 and dispose of CO 2 4 distinct processes: 1) Pulmonary ventilation: movement of air in and out of lungs 2) External respiration: 3) Transport of respiratory gases: role of blood in transport of gases 4) Internal respiration: at the level of the tissues, exchange of gases between blood in systemic capillaries and tissue cells first 2 functions handled by respiratory system; other two by CV system J. Carnegie, UofO
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6.1 Describe the structure of each one of the components of the conduction and respiratory zones respiratory zone: (= site of gas exchange) »» composed of respiratory bronchioles, conducting zone: (passageways) »» nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles as well as providing a passageway, conducting zone organs also cleanse , humidify & warm incoming air
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1. Nose functions: a) airway for respiration b) c) d) resonating chamber for speech e) olfactory (smell) receptors structure of external nose: » differences in nose size/shape due to differences in nasal cartilages » skin covering dorsal/lateral aspects of nose is thin; contains many sebaceous glands J. Carnegie, UofO philtrum Fig. 22.2b
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Fig. 22.3 nasal cavity: air enters nasal cavity via external nares ( nostrils ) - divided by midline nasal septum (cartilage » bone); air then goes via internal nares to nasopharynx roof of nasal cavity formed by ethmoid & sphenoid bones of skull floor of nasal cavity formed by palate (anterior is hard; posterior is soft) vibrissae : what are these? nasal cavity lined by 2 types of mucosa a) olfactory mucosa: contains receptors for sense of smell
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Anatomy of Nose (cont) b) respiratory mucosa: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells; lamina propria has mucous & serous glands (1 L/day sticky mucus containing lysozyme ) • resp mucosa cilia move contaminated mucus posteriorly to pharynx cold air slows cilia »» runny nose thin-walled veins under nasal epithelium nosebleeds? What are nasal conchae? nasal mucosa richly supplied with sensory nerves irritants trigger sneeze reflex J. Carnegie, UofO Fig. 22.3a
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Fig. 7.11a 2. Paranasal Sinuses surround nasal cavity frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillary bones lighten skull, produce mucus, also warm & moisten air sinus mucosa continuous with nasal mucosa »» spread of infections sinus headache : passageways connecting sinuses to nasal cavity blocked » air in sinus absorbed » partial vacuum
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3. Pharynx common pathway for food and air wall composed of skeletal muscle throughout ~13 cm length; mucosal lining varies 3a) Nasopharynx posterior to nasal cavity, below sphenoid bone, above soft palate
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Chapter 9 Respiratory System 2009 - Chapter 22 INTRODUCTION...

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