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Unformatted text preview: Strategic Organization
Persuasive Speeches Stasis Theory
Stasis Hermagoras, second century B.C.E.
A systematic way of asking questions about the issue you plan to address Conjecture Definition Quality
Procedure What stand should you take in your attempt to persuade? Which questions need the most attention for your particular audience? Framing Persuasive Speeches
Proposition of Fact
Proposition of Value
**Proposition of Policy** Proposition of Fact
Proposition A proposition about the truth or falsity of an assertion. Similar to an informative speech, but different in situation and purpose.
Courtroom trials Example: Iraq supported Al Qaida terrorist activities in 2001. Proposition of Value
Proposition A proposition about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action.
Compare values to a standard: Define Standard
Judge subject against standard Example: The war in Iraq is just and right. Proposition of Policy
Proposition A proposition advocating a specific action
changing of policy, procedure or behavior
(whether a specific course of action [policy] should or should not be taken).
Example: The federal government should remove the troops in Iraq immediately. **This is the type of persuasive speech we will be doing for the Persuasive Assignment.** Propositions of Policy
Propositions Two Goals Passive Agreement The federal government should enact a policy that would withdraw all troops from Iraq by 2010. Immediate Action The federal government should remove the troops in Iraq immediately. Fact? Value? Policy?
Fact? To persuade my audience that children who grow up in gay families are more likely to be gay.
To persuade my audience that the federal government has a moral duty to uphold the right of marriage between a man and a woman.
To persuade my audience that the federal government should enact legislation to ban gay marriage. Assignment Three:
“Governing body should/should not perform action Y.” Organizing Questions of Fact
Organizing Items of Logical Proof Similar to “topical organization”
Think of the order (primacy—move from least controversial to most controversial) Spatial Organizing Questions of Value
Organizing Familiarity/Acceptance Main Point 1: Develop criteria that is familiar to your audience
Main Point 2: Demonstrate how your question of value addresses this criteria Justification Skip developing a set of criteria Instead, explore diverse standards on a variety of levels to judge your question of value Organizing Questions of Policy
Elimination Outline Establish Criteria
Systematically apply say criteria to each of the available alternatives Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
Refutation*** Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
Action MMS Example
Think of a BreathMint Commercial Attention: Imagine a romantic encounter with a stranger
Need: But your breath is foul. What to do?!
Satisfaction: Fear not! With SUPERMINTY mints, your breath will be fresh for HOURS.
Visualization: Now imagine a world where everyone has fresh, minty breath…think of all the strangers out there! ;)
Action: BUY SUPERMINTY mints today! Refutation
Refutation The attack and defense of a challenged statement of claim (David Zarefsky)
To answer the argument of another (Brydon & Scott)
Toattempt to weaken the proofs by the opposition (Sproule)
To raise doubt about a competing position by revealing inconsistencies and weaknesses (Osborne and Osborne) Four Main Steps of a Refutation
1. 2. 3. 4. Clearly frame the message that you will refute.
Explain the significance of the message that you will refute.
Introduce and then develop your refutation.
Explain how your message damages the opposition. Step One: Clearly frame the
message that you will refute.
message Have a topic sentence that covers the entire main point.
State the argument to be refuted/attacked. You must know your opponent’s intent (state their objection clearly, concisely and honestly). Step Two: Explain the significance
of the message that you will refute.
of You must make clear why it is important to counter the argument, reduce the reservation, or address the position in opposition. Step Three: Introduce and
then develop your refutation. Lay out the refutation plan—tell how you’re going to do it.
Construct your argument—use a method of refutation (see notes)
Make a claim and support it with credible evidence (facts, figures, examples and testimony) Step Four: Explain how your
message damages the opposition.
message Explain the impact your argument has on your opponent’s argument.
Tell the audience directly.
Leave nothing to the audience’s discretion—be explicit!!! Methods of Refutation Basic Methods of Refutation
1. Ask questions/raise objects.
2. Note contradictions or inconsistencies with opponent’s argument or evidence.
a. Apply the tests of evidence.
b. Test your opponent’s reasoning.
3. Turn the tables.
4. Concede, but engage in transcendence. Ask Questions/Raise Objections
My opponent’s argument sounds powerful and profound, but really isn’t.
Example: The NRA wants to make sure you can have a gun in your household to protect your family. But look at the numbers of OUR children dying from gunrelated accidents! Are guns really protecting our families, or are they killing them? Note Contradictions or
Inconsistencies You are working to show that the argument is not true or very limited. Apply the tests of Evidence Bias? Outdated? Overreliance on a single source? Irrelevant? Inexpert? Inconsistent? Unreliable? Apply the tests of Evidence Test opponent’s reasoning FALLACIOUS? When does an analogy fall apart? When does the argument not apply? Turn the Tables
Turn REDEFINE the situation.
Your opponent is X is good; Y is bad. You say, well, no—actually Y is good and X is bad. Example: Malcolm X argued that white is bad and black is good. Concede and Transcend
Say that the opposition’s argument is true (concede), but engage in transcendence by appealing to a higher value (family, time, life, morals, etc).
Example: An opponent to the death penalty concedes that she too would want to kill someone who murdered someone she loved, but she wants society to be better than that. Examples of Refutation
Examples See handouts The Power of Public Speaking
The Remember, history illustrates the power public speaking has on people: political, social and economic.
The development of your ethos is crucial: competence and character are critical. ...
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- Fall '06