1372 Lec 08aNov2011

1372 Lec 08aNov2011 - 1 General Chemistry 4th edition,...

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General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry 1
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General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry 4 Spontaneity is the notion of whether or not a process can take place unassisted. Chapter 17. More thermodynamics: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy A spontaneous process is one that can occur in a system left to itself; no action from outside the system is necessary to bring it about. A nonspontaneous process is one that cannot take place in a system left to itself. If a process is spontaneous, the reverse process is nonspontaneous, and vice versa . However, “spontaneous” signifies nothing about how fast a process occurs.
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General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry 5 Thermodynamics determines the equilibrium state of a system, and predict the proportions of products and reactants at equilibrium. A high activation energy can effectively block a reaction that is thermodynamically favored. Example: combustion reactions are thermodynamically favored, but (fortunately for life on Earth!) most such reactions also have a high activation energy. Spontaneous Change (cont’d)
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General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry 6 The spreading of the energy among states, and increase of entropy, often correspond to a greater physical disorder at the microscopic level . There are two driving forces behind spontaneous processes: the tendency to achieve a lower energy state (enthalpy change) and the tendency for energy to be distributed among states (entropy). In many cases, however, the two factors work in
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1372 Lec 08aNov2011 - 1 General Chemistry 4th edition,...

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