1372 Lec 18Oct20110 - 1 General Chemistry 4th edition,...

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General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry 1
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General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry 5 Chemical kinetics is the study of: – the rates of chemical reactions factors that affect these rates the mechanisms by which reactions occur Depends upon Chemical Kinetics (13.1,2) Concentrations of reactants : Reaction rates generally increase as the concentrations of the reactants are increased. Temperature : Reaction rates generally increase rapidly as the temperature is increased. Surface area : For reactions that occur on a surface rather than in solution, the rate increases as the surface area is increased. Catalysts : Catalysts speed up reactions and inhibitors slow them down.
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General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry 6 The Meaning of Rate The rate of a reaction is the change in concentration of a product per unit of time (rate of formation of product). Rate is also viewed as the negative of the change in concentration of a reactant per unit of time (rate of disappearance of reactant). The rate of reaction often has the units of moles per liter per unit time (mol L –1 s –1 or M s –1 ) rate of disappearance of reactant or of formation of product stoichiometric coefficient of that reactant or product in the balanced equation General rate of reaction =
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General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry 7 If the rate of consumption of H 2 O 2 is 4.6 M/h, then … … the rate of formation of H 2 O must also be 4.6 M/h, and … … the rate of formation of O is 2.3 M/h
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General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry 8 Average vs. Instantaneous Rate Instantaneous rate is the slope of the tangent to the curve at a particular time. We often are interested in the initial instantane- ous rate; for the initial concentrations of reactants and products are known at this time.
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General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry 9
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General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry 10 The Rate Law of a Chemical Reaction The rate law
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1372 Lec 18Oct20110 - 1 General Chemistry 4th edition,...

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