PSYCH 476 November 2, 2011 Notes

PSYCH 476 November 2, 2011 Notes - 1 PSYCH 476 Positive...

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PSYCH 476 Positive Psychology November 2, 2011 [continued] Values and behavior If values do not relate to behavior, then they are of little interest At the same time, we must realize that research shows the relationship between values and behavior to be less than perfect and indeed variable So, when do values and behaviors agree? Circumstances of acquisition Definition of self-image Self-consciousness Interpretation of specific behaviors Generality of the value Scope of the behavior (multiple indicators) Thus, value-behavior discrepancy may not mean hypocrisy, something we recognize about ourselves but not always about others Values and happiness The value-congruence model of life satisfaction proposes that satisfaction with value-congruent domains are more important contributors to overall life satisfaction than satisfaction with other domains This prediction is supposed cross-culturally (Oishi et al., 1999) e.g., satisfaction with the self a stronger predictor of overall happiness in individualist cultures than in collectivist cultures e.g., financial and job satisfaction better predictors of overall happiness in poorer nations than in wealthier nations cf. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Indeed, people are happier to the degree that their personal values are congruent with those of the larger culture in which they live (Fischer, 2006) Changing values? Inglehart’s work suggests that values are highly stable for the individual 1
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When societal values change, they do so according to a process dubbed generational replacement So, as values become more affluent, self-expressive values become more dominant (as the younger generation comes of age) By the way, the United States is an anomaly on the world stage of values, in view of the continuing role played by religious values o Values in the US (with exceptions) have been rather consistent over years The US is one of the most religious places on the planet, certainly more so than Western Europe (even the Vatican) and is comparable to Pakistan and conservative Middle Eastern countries May reflect the unique history of the United States Exception Example) Cohort differences in terms of gay rights In any event, generational replacement is not occurring in the United States … the “younger generation” shares the same values as their parents and grandparents, although of course their attitudes differ (e.g., gay rights) If we still wish to encourage values, what does the research literature suggest? Extant theories emphasize values clarification and assume (naively?) that
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PSYCH 476 November 2, 2011 Notes - 1 PSYCH 476 Positive...

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